Since October 1993, the work by Kazakhstan on climate change issues in the framework of the UNFCCC have been carried out by the Main Administration on Hydrometeorology (Kazhydromet) and the Kazakh Scientific and Research Institute of Environmental Monitoring and Climate (KazNIIMOSK). The Climate Change Studies Laboratory (CCSL) of KazNIIMOSK conducted climate change studies and coordinated the activities relating to the Climate Change National Action Plan development. Experts and scientists from several related sectoral agencies were also involved in this work.
The mitigation assessment for Kazakhstan, Kazakstan Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Assessment, is addressed mainly to the energy sector. In the non-energy sector some possible greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options and their GHG reduction potential were estimated based on expert judgments. The mitigation assessment for energy sector is based on the ENPEP model. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies in energy production, which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the projections, Kazakhstan's CO2 emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The maximum potential for CO2 emission reduction is supposed to be about 21% of the base year 1990 emission level. The main mitigation options in the energy production sector, according to the criteria of mitigation potential and feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydroenergy based on small hydroelectric power plants introduction.
The Kazakhstan national climate change action plan, Support for National Action Plan (SNAP) for the Republic of Kazakhstan, presents the final results obtained by Kazakhstan in 1996-1998 through the United States Support of National Action Plans Program with technical and financial assistance of the U.S. Agency for International Development.