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ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION: Introduction

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Chapter 1
CHANGES IN BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION REACHING THE EARTH'S SURFACE

Summary

Introduction

Biologically Active UV Radiation

Measurements of UV Radiation

Model-Derived Surface UV Radiation

Future UV Radiation Levels

References


Chapter 2
HEALTH RISKS

Summary
Introduction
Hazards for Humans
Factors Modifying Exposure and Susceptibility


Chapter  3
EFFECTS OF INCREASED SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

Summary
Introduction
General Effects on Organisms
Which Terrestrial Ecosystems Might be Most Affected by Increased UV-B Radiation?
Interaction of UV-B and other Factors
Implications for Agriculture, Forests and other Ecosystems


Chapter 4
EFFECTS ON AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

Summary
Introduction

Dissolved Organic Matter and Solar UV Radiation

Measurements and Modeling
Bacterioplankton and Picoplankton
Cyanobacteria
Phytoplankton
Macroalgae and Seagrasses
Zooplankton
Secondary Consumers
Ecosystems


Chapter 5
EFFECTS OF ENHANCED SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

Summary
Introduction
Terrestrial Ecosystems


Chapter 6
CHANGES IN TROPOSPHERIC COMPOSITION AND AIR QUALITY

Summary
Introduction
Increases in UV-B Photodissociation Rate Coefficients
Changes in Tropospheric Chemical Composition
TFA in the Biosphere


Chapter 7
EFFECTS OF INCREASED SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON MATERIALS

Summary
Introduction
UV Damage to Polymers
Wavelength Sensitivity of Photodegradation
Conclusions

References

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Health Effects
Duration of Exposure to UV-B Radiation
Are Animals at Risk?
Aquatic Life
Terrestrial Plant Life
Location-specific Issues
Clear Skies vs. Cloud Cover
Sunbathing
Economic Consequences
Environmental effects panel members and UNEP Representatives

Co-authors

List of Expert Reviewers

List of Abbreviations


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