February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 1, NUMBER 1, JULY 1988
"The Three-Dimensional Morphology of the Antarctic Ozone Minimum,"
A.C. Aikin (NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr., Greenbelt, Md.), R.D. McPeters, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 15(5), 413-416, May 1988.
Nimbus 7 solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) data from October 1986 show
a clearly defined O3 minimum from the tropopause to above 50 km. Displacement
toward the equator at the upper levels may create the illusion that the minimum
is restricted to low altitudes. Three distinct altitude domains are identified:
O3 is more stable in the middle domain (33-43 km); above that altitude, O3 has
suffered a long-term decrease of 7-12% since 1979.
"Antarctic Ozone Depletion Chemistry: Reactions of N2O5 with H2O and
HCl on Ice Surfaces," M.A. Tolbert (Dept. Chem. Kinetics, SRI Int., Menlo
Pk. CA 94025), M.J. Rossi, S.M. Golden, Science, 240(4855),
1018-1021, May 20, 1988.
N2O5 reacted on ice at 185K in the laboratory to form condensed-phase HNO3.
The reaction may provide a sink for odd nitrogen during the polar winter, a
requirement of nearly all models of ozone depletion. Also produced was gaseous
nitryl chloride (ClNO2), which can be readily photolyzed in the Antarctic spring
to form atomic Cl for catalytic O3 destruction cycles.
"Extremely Low N2O Concentrations in the Springtime Stratosphere at
McMurdo Station, Antarctica," A. Parrish (Millitech Corp., S. Deerfield MA
01373), R.L. de Zafra et al., Nature, 332(6159), 53-55, Mar. 3,
Measurements using the State University of New York at Stony Brook
millimeter-wave remote sensing spectrometer indicated that October N2O levels
were 10-20% of summer levels, much less than predicted by global-scale
stratospheric models. Results argue against theories that require springtime
upwelling to explain the Antarctic ozone hole, and suggest that lower
stratospheric air during late winter and early spring has been subjected to
considerable downward transport.
"Regional Studies of Potential Carbon Monoxide Sources Based on
Space Shuttle and Aircraft Measurements," R.E. Newell (Dept. Earth Atmos.
Sci., Rm. 54-1522, Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), S.T. Shipley et
al., J. Atmos. Chem., 6, 61-81, 1988.
Maxima were found over South America, central Africa, the eastern
Mediterranean, and China. They appear to be associated with convection, which
carries boundary layer air into the upper troposphere, and are consistent with
previous aircraft measurements of CO and O3 over South America. In the tropics
three regions of long-term mean rising motion are associated with elevated CO.
"Helium-Cooled Balloon-Borne Infrared Experiment for Measurements of
Stratospheric Trace Gas Emissions," H. Rippel (Kayser-Threde GmbH, 80000
Munich 70, FRG), L. Hilbert et al., Appl. Optics, 26(15), 3097
ff., Aug. 1, 1987.
Reports limb scan measurements made in the 5.5-19 micro m band in France in
September as part of the MAP/Globus 1983 field experiment. Mixing ratios of NO2,
H2O, CH4, HNO3, O3 and N2O were derived.
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