February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 1, NUMBER 3, SEPTEMBER 1988
"A New Laboratory Source of Ozone and Its Potential Atmospheric
Implications," T.G. Slanger (Chem. Phys. Lab., SRI International, Menlo
Park CA 94025), L.E. Jusinki et al., Science, 241(4868),
945-950, Aug. 19, 1988.
Explains an autocatalytic, low energy mechanism of O3 production from O2. It
may explain the deficiency which exists in current models of O3 photochemistry
in the upper atmosphere and mesosphere, in that more O3 is found than can be
"Atmospheric Ozone at South Pole, Antarctica, in 1986," W.D.
Komhyr (Air Resour. Lab., NOAA, Boulder CO 80303), S.J. Oltmans, R.D. Grass,
J. Geophys. Res., 93(D5), 5167-5184, May 20, 1988.
Vertical profile ozone distributions and variations and total annual ozone
levels were measured with electrochemical concentration cell ozonesondes and a
Dobson spectrophotometer. Total ozone decreased by about 40% in
September-October. Suggests a correspondence between El Niņo related
highs in sea surface temperature anomalies in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, and
lows in October-December total ozone averages observed at the South Pole in the
1960s and 1970s. The intense 1982-1983 El Niņo probably contributed to an
observed springtime ozone decrease. Other factors in ozone destruction such as
mountain-wave induced vertical air motions are examined.
"Vertical Column Abundance Measurements of Atmospheric Hydroxyl from
26° , 40° , and 65° N," C.R. Burnett (Dept. Phys., Florida
Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton FL 33431), K.R. Minschwaner, E.B. Burnett, ibid.,
Theoretical models of OH agree well with the pre-1980 abundances, but recent
data appear to require a significant change in the atmospheric photochemistry.
Large Florida OH abundance excursions with respect to Colorado levels were seen
in the wintertime of 1980, 1984 and 1986 and suggest the possibility of a
relationship with the quasi-biennial oscillation in tropical stratospheric
winds. Other anomalies in measurements at all three sites are discussed.
"Land-Use Change in the Soviet Union Between 1850 and 1980: Causes
of a Net Release of CO2 to the Atmosphere," J.M. Melillo (Ecosyst. Ctr.,
Marine Biol. Lab., Woods Hole MA 02543), J.R. Fruci et al., Tellus, 40B(2),
116-128, Apr. 1988.
A detailed analysis of the history of land-use change showed that the net
carbon flux in the USSR was about zero in 1980, in contrast to previous analyses
showing USSR to be a net carbon sink. Regrowth of forest vegetation following
harvest showed an annual net storage for the period 1955-1975, but this was
balanced by a net release to the atmosphere by a variety of processes such as
the oxidation of woody debris and decay of wood products.
"Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Measurements in the Remote Global
Troposphere, 1981-1984," T.J. Conway (Air Resour. Lab., NOAA, Boulder CO
80303), P. Tans et al., ibid., 81-115.
Carbon dioxide concentration measurements were made about weekly at 22 sites
during 1981-1984. Selected data were analyzed using an objective curve fitting
method which improves estimation of uncertainties associated with derived
parameters. The latitudinal distribution of annual mean CO2 concentration at the
network sites shows significant interannual variability possibly related to the
1982-1983 El Niņo/Southern Oscillation event. There was no evidence of an
overall trend, but significant interannual and interstation variability in the
CO2 growth rate was also observed.
"Antarctic Chlorine Chemistry: Possible Global Implications,"
J.M. Rodriguez (Atmos. Environ. Res. Inc., Cambridge, Mass.), M.K.W. Ko, N.D.
Sze, Geophys. Res. Lett., 15(3), 257-260, Mar. 1988.
Occurrence of heterogeneous reactions on the surface of polar stratospheric
clouds is a necessary component of the chlorine-related chemical mechanisms
proposed to explain the recently observed decrease of ozone during Antarctic
spring. Of the two heterogeneous processes considered here with a
one-dimensional model, the reaction (ClNO3 + HCl) could have a larger impact on
stratospheric ozone. Suggests monitoring of stratospheric concentrations of ClO,
HCl, OClO and aerosols at various sites for 10-20 years to establish which
reactions are occurring.
"Nighttime and Daytime Variation of Atmospheric NO2 from
Ground-Based Infrared Measurements," J.-M. Flaud (Lab. Atmos., Univ. P.M.
Curie, C.N.R.S., Tour 13, 4 place Jassieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05), C. Camy-Peyret
et al., ibid., 261-264.
A rather rapid decrease of the NO2 amount during the night has been observed
and its daytime increase from sunrise to sunset has been confirmed. A comparison
with the predictions of a photochemical model is given.
"Aircraft Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Dioxide over the
Japanese Islands," M. Tanaka (Upper Atmos. Res. Lab., Tohoku Univ., Sendai
980, Japan), T. Nakazawa et al., Tellus, 40B(1), 16-22, Jan.
Samples were collected aboard commercial airliners during 1982-85 to
elucidate spatial and temporal variations within the global CO2 cycle between 26° N
and 38° N. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of upper tropospheric CO2
decreased gradually southward, and was delayed about a month. The concentration
difference between the lowest and highest layers sampled was about 2 ppmv. The
secular trend of CO2 concentration over the southernmost part of Japan was
almost the same as at the higher latitudes.
"Future Emission Scenarios for Chemicals That May Deplete
Stratospheric Ozone," J.K. Hammit (Rand Corp., Santa Monica, Calif.), F.
Camm et al., Nature, 330(6150), 711-716, Dec. 24, 1987.
Scenarios are developed for long-term future emissions of seven of the most
important manmade chemicals that may deplete ozone, and the corresponding effect
on stratospheric ozone concentrations is calculated using a one-dimensional
atmospheric model. The scenarios are based on detailed analysis of the markets
for products that use these chemicals, and span a central 90% probability
interval for the chemicals' joint effect on calculated ozone abundance, assuming
no additional emission regulations.
"Nitrous Oxide Production Throughout the Year from Fertilized and
Manured Maize Fields," R.L. Cates Jr. (Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706),
D.R. Keeney, J. Environ. Qual., 16(4), 443-447, Oct. 1987.
Two field sites on a loam soil cropped to maize and managed at two high N
levels were monitored for N2O concentration in the soil atmosphere, and rate of
emission from the soil surface. Most of the N2O was emitted between mid-June and
the end of July when the soil was warm and NH4+-N was present, and at spring
thaw the following year when soils were cold and nearly water saturated. At
thaw, an apparent physical release period occurred and N2O flux was higher than
during most of the growing season.
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