February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 1, NUMBER 3, SEPTEMBER 1988
"Transient Climatic Response to Increasing CO2 Concentration: Some
Dynamical Scenarios," C. Nicolis (Inst. d'Aéronomie Spatiale
Belgique, Ave. Circulaire, 1180 Bruxelles, Belgium), Tellus, 40A(1),
50-60, Jan. 1988.
Identifies the prerequisites that must be satisfied by a system in order to
produce a response to an increasing control parameter similar to the observed
surface temperature trend: a period of systematic increase (on which is
superimposed small scale variability) followed by a slowing down or even by a
plateau. Suggests that the variance of climatic observables is much more
sensitive to the increase of a control parameter than are their means.
"Modelling Sea Surface Temperature Rise Resulting from Increasing
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations," D. Henderson-Sellers (Dept.
Math., Univ. Salford, Salford, UK), Clim. Change, 11, 349-59,
Results from two recent independent studies using a simple box-diffusion
model suggest that over the last 130 years a sea surface temperature increment
of about 0.3° K occurred, which agrees with observations. If a convective
capability was added to the model, the sea surface temperature increase on a
timescale of a century would only be about one-third of this.
"Evaluation of Satellite Derived Land Cover Characteristics for
Global Climate Modelling," G. Thomas (Inst. Hydrology, Wallingford, U.K.),
A. Henderson-Sellers, ibid., 313-347.
A preliminary evaluation of the suitability of NOAA global vegetation index
(GVI) satellite data archive for climate modeling has been done through
comparison to existing data bases of soil and vegetation cover. Selection of GVI
class boundaries is hard and is probably a strong function of the classification
technique employed. It was found that GVI values for very similar ecotypes vary
widely from region to region, making global classification risky and not useful
for global climate modelers in its present form.
Comment on "The Effect of Changing Climate on Australian Biomass
Production--A Preliminary Study,", ibid., 391-93.
"A Doubled CO2 Climate Sensitivity Experiment With a Global Climate
Model Including a Simple Ocean," C.A. Wilson (Meteor. Off., Bracknell,
Berkshire, England), J.F.B. Mitchell, J. Geophys. Res., 92(D11),
13,315-13,343, Nov. 20, 1987.
The sensitivity of a global climate model is presented, assessed and
compared with earlier studies. Many of the discrepancies in the responses of
different models can be traced to differences in the simulations of present-day
climate. The choice of convective parameterization appears to influence the
sensitivity of the simulated response in the tropics.
"Seasonal Variability of Carbon Dioxide, Nutrients and Oxygen in the
Northern North Atlantic Surface Water: Observations and a Model,"
Tsung-Hung Peng (Environ. Sci. Div., Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge, TN 37831),
Taro Takahashi et al., Tellus, 39B, 439-58, Nov. 1987.
The seasonal variation of various surface water properties has been
monitored for two years at a station located 120 miles south of the
Iceland-Greenland sill. To account for the observed seasonal variation, a
vertically one-dimensional, two-box ocean model was constructed. When calibrated
using the observed phosphate concentration in surface water, this model yields
seasonal variations of carbon and oxygen values consistent with observations,
except for spring time values resulting from phytoplankton blooms. Corrections
can be made to simulate the spring bloom effect.
"Ice-Albedo Feedback in a CO2-Doubling Simulation," R.E.
Dickinson (Nat. Ctr. Atmos. Res., Boulder CO 80307), G.A. Meehl, W.M.
Washington., Clim. Change, 10, 241-248, July 1987.
A global warming of 3.5° C, found by the author's previous simulation of
a CO2-doubling, would have been only 2.2° C according to author's estimate
of ice-snow feedback. Further study is needed to verify estimates.
"Asymptotic Analysis of Airborne Fraction Used to Validate Global
Carbon Models," R.J. Mulholland (Elec. Eng., Comp. Sci., Univ. Oklahoma,
Norman OK 73019), W.R. Emanuel, Ecol. Modelling, 36(1/2),
139-152, Apr. 1987.
Airborne fraction is defined as the ratio of change in atmospheric CO2
concentration to input of CO2 over a specified time period. The validation
scheme proposed compares a model-computed (asymptotic) airborne fraction with an
observed value. This is tested using an independently calibrated
ocean/atmosphere sub-model, and is followed by a test of a global carbon cycle
model made up of a previously tested ocean/atmosphere sub-model linked with a
model for the terrestrial biota. These tests produce a range of valid model
parameters similar to those from independent observations.
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