February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1989
SPECIAL ISSUE -- OZONE DEPLETION (In Japanese)
Kankyo Kenkyu, No. 69, July 1988.
"Protection of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer. Details of the Ozone
Problem and Measures Taken to Solve It," H. Goto, 23-36. Japan has signed
the Vienna Treaty for the protection of the ozone layer and the Montreal
Protocol, and has decided to establish the ozone protection law.
"Future Technical Problems in the Measures to Counter Freon," K.
Mori (Environ. Agency, Tokyo), 53-58. The concentration of Freon in the
atmosphere is increasing again, due to increased use as a coolant in automobiles
and as the blowing agent for urethane foam, and it will be continuously
monitored in Japan. Discusses the development of alternatives to Freon, and
"Ultraviolet Rays and Skin/Cutaneous Cancer," Y. Miki (Ehime
Univ., Ehime, Japan), T. Miyauchi, 59-65. Presents the effect of UV rays on the
individual components of skin. The U.S. EPA reports that the development of the
sunburn of skin, the fundus cellular cancer and the flat epithelial cancer
increases by about 2, 4 and 6%, respectively, when the ozone layer decreases by
"Study of Greenhouse Effect Due to Radiation Active Gases, Freon and
Others," H. Muramatsu (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto, Japan), 81-91. A meteorological
simulation was used to calculate the variations of radiation and ambient
temperature in the troposphere corresponding to the variations of radiatively
active trace gases in the atmosphere. CFCs are responsible for about 10% of the
total greenhouse effect. Predicts that in the period 1980 to 2030 this will
increase to 30%, and ambient temperature will increase about 1.5 to 4.5K due to
the greenhouse effect of CO2 and other trace gases over the next hundred years.
"Latest Topics Concerning Ozone Layer Observations," H. Akimoto
(Nat. Inst. Environ. Studies, Ibaraki, Japan), 92-102. Discusses various causes
of the ozone hole. Uses the Dobson spectrophotometer to determine the ozone
concentrations and evaluate the long-term trend of global ozone. Also uses ozone
laser radar to monitor ozone levels.
"Development of Alternatives to Freon," N. Ishikawa (Tokyo Inst.
Tech., Tokyo), 114-119. Aims at designing the chemical structure of a
non-polluting substitute for Freon--a chlorine-free compound or a
chlorine-contained compound whose decomposition products do not reach the ozone
layer. The most promising chlorine-free compound is HFC-134a. The best
chlorine-contained compound is HCFC-123, followed by HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b.
"Results and Issues of Japan's Efforts in the Maintenance of the Earth
Environment, Based on a Review of the Legal Aspect of Ozone Layer Protection,"
M. Kobayashi (Environ. Agency, Tokyo), 129-138. Japan signed the Montreal
Protocol immediately following the adoption of the treaty. Suggests two ways of
responding to resolutions of international organizations concerning global
environmental problems: enforce international measures strictly and/or present a
menu of various measures the adoption of which is subject to the environmental
authorities of each country.
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Index of Abbreviations