February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1989
"Effect of Improved Physical Parameterizations on Simulations of
Cloudiness and the Earth's Radiation Budget," A. Slingo (NCAR, POB 3000,
Boulder CO 80307), R.C. Wilderspin, R.N.B. Smith, J. Geophys. Res., 94(D2),
2281-2301, Feb. 20, 1989.
Describes development of a new version of the United Kingdom Meteorological
Office 11-layer atmospheric general circulation model, with emphasis on the
prediction of the fractional cloud cover and of the Earth's Radiation Budget.
Discusses various changes to the model's physical parameterization, including
revisions to the convection scheme to treat more accurately the effects of
shallow cumulus convection, and removal of systematic errors in the
thermodynamic structure of the marine boundary layer. Simulations from the new
version are generally in good agreement with satellite measurements.
"Dependence of Warm and Cold Climate Depiction on Climate Model
Resolution," D. Rind (Goddard Space Flight Ctr., NASA, 2880 Broadway, New
York NY 10025), J. Clim., 1(10), 965-997, Oct. 1988.
Discusses resolution dependency of climate change sensitivity, atmospheric
dynamics and regional climate depiction. Results show that model resolution
affects two key processes in the control runs, moist convection and the
nonlinear transfer of kinetic energy into the zonal mean flow. With finer
resolution there are stronger winds, more evaporation and a more active
hydrological cycle. The doubled CO2 run using the finer grid has a greater
decrease in high-level cloud cover, eddy energy, and eddy energy transports, and
a greater increase in temperature, surface winds, precipitation and penetrative
convection. Regional climate changes also differ with resolution.
"An Earth Outgoing Longwave Radiation Climate Model. Part II:
Radiation With Clouds Included," S.-K. Yang, G.L. Smith, F.L. Bartman
(Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109), ibid.,
Further develops model to account for the presence of clouds and their
influence on outgoing long wave radiation (OLWR). Results agreed well with the
satellite observations. Clouds enhance the water vapor modulation of OLWR.
Results also suggest that a simple parameterization of the long wave cooling
should include a water vapor absorbing term.
"The GISS Global Climate--Middle Atmosphere Model," D. Rind
(Goddard Space Flight Ctr., NASA, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10023), R. Suozzo
et al., J. Atmos. Sci., 45(3), Feb. 1, 1988.
"I. Model Structure and Climatology," 329-370. Describes extension
of the GISS global climate model to include the middle atmosphere up to about 85
km. Results from a 5-year run compared with observations produce generally
realistic fields of temperature and wind throughout the atmosphere up to about
75 km. Discusses strengths and deficiencies of simulations. Concludes that a
coarse grid general circulation model with parameterized gravity wave drag can
produce a reasonable simulation of the middle atmosphere.
"II. Model Variability Due to Interactions Between Planetary Waves, the
Mean Circulation and Gravity Wave Drag," 371-386. Reviews the variability
of the model on two time scales: interannual standard deviations, derived from
the five-year control run, and intraseasonal variability as shown in
stratospheric warmings. Variability on both time scales results from a complex
set of interactions among planetary waves, the mean circulation, and gravity
wave drag. Presents specific examples of interactions which suggest that
variability in gravity wave forcing and drag are important to the variability of
the middle atmosphere.
"Body Force Circulation and the Antarctic Ozone Minimum," T.J.
Dunkerton (Northwest Res. Assoc. Inc., POB 3027, Bellevue WA 98009), ibid.,
The decelerating effect of enhanced upper tropospheric wavedriving in winter
and early spring induces a reverse component of the residual mean meridional
circulation in the polar lower stratosphere, opposite to that induced by
radiative cooling; certain circumstances can lead to upwelling. Discusses
analytic and numerically derived properties of this generalized residual mean
body force circulation.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations