February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1989
"Satellite Determination of the Carbon Dioxide Exchange Coefficient
at the Ocean-Atmosphere Interface: A First Step," J. Etcheto (Lab. d'Océanog.
Dynamique et de Climatology, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris Cedex 05,
France), L. Merlivat, J. Geophys. Res.,
93(C12), 15,669-15,678, Dec. 15, 1988.
Satellite data along with wind determinations derived from Seasat
scatterometer data taken over 3 months were used to infer a global exchange
coefficient map. This map, combined with a global map of partial pressure
gradient of CO2, was used to estimate the net flux on a worldwide scale.
"The Role of Vertical Chemical Fractionation in Controlling Late
Quaternary Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide," E.A. Boyle (Dept. Earth Sci., Mass.
Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), ibid., 15,701-15,714.
Presents a new model to explain late quaternary CO2 variability and resolve
problems of previous models. The primary driving factor is a rearrangement of
chemical distributions in the ocean where labile nutrients and metabolic CO2 are
concentrated in deep waters instead of intermediate waters as observed in the
modern ocean. Processes involved are illustrated in a simple equilibrium
five-box ocean model.
"Distributions and Variations of Oceanic Carbon Dioxide in the
Western North Pacific, Eastern Indian, and Southern Ocean South of Australia,"
H. Inoue (Geochem. Lab., Meteorolog. Res. Inst., Nagamine 1-1, Yatabe, Tsukuba,
Ibaraki 305, Japan), Y. Sugimura, Tellus, 40B(4), 308-320, Sep.
The pCO2 in surface seawater was high in high latitudes and coastal and
equatorial regions, and low in the subtropics. Two kinds of periodicities during
the annual cycle, that are caused by variations in seawater temperature,
vertical mixing and biological activities, were found off Japan's coast. The
pCO2 in surface seawater obtained in the boreal winters of 1969 and 1984
suggests an increase due to the enhancement of CO2 flux from air to sea.
"Measuring Correlations Between Atmospheric Oxygen and Carbon
Dioxide Mole Fractions: A Preliminary Study in Urban Air," R.F. Keeling
(Harvard Univ., E.S.L., 40 Oxford St., Cambridge MA 02138), J. Atmos. Chem.,
7(2), 153-176, Aug. 1988.
A two-day sampling of air in Cambridge, Massachusetts was monitored for O2
and CO2. Changes in O2 were shown to be strongly anticorrelated with changes in
CO2, as expected for combustion processes. The demonstrated instrumental
capabilities are appropriate for measuring changes in O2 mole fraction in
background air, which could be of importance to a broad range of biogeochemical
Comment and reply on "Biotic Changes Consistent With Increased
Seasonal Amplitude of Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations" by R.A. Houghton,
J. Geophys. Res., 93(D2), 1745-1748, Feb. 20, 1988.
"Iron Deficiency Limits Phytoplankton Growth in the North-East
Pacific Subarctic," J.H. Martin (Moss Landing Marine Lab., Moss Landing CA
95039), S.E. Fitzwater, Nature, 331(6154), 341-343, Jan. 28,
Laboratory studies on water with its resident phytoplankton, collected from
the northeast Pacific, showed that Fe deficiency is limiting phytoplankton
growth in these major nutrient-rich waters. Proposes that Fe availability may be
important in determining global atmospheric CO2 levels and affecting global
climate. Postulates that the enhanced supply of Fe from the atmosphere
stimulated photosynthesis, which led to the drawdown in atmospheric CO2 levels
during glacial maxima.
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