February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1989
"Formation of the Antarctic Ozone Hole by the ClO Dimer Mechanism,"
J.W. Barrett (Earth Sci., State Univ. N.Y., Stony Brook NY 11794), P.M. Solomon
et al., Nature, 336(6198), 455-458, Dec. 1, 1988.
New ground-based measurements of the low-altitude ClO profile made in
September 1987, along with observations of ozone depletion over McMurdo Sound,
show that both the rate and altitude range of depletion can be quantitatively
explained by a mechanism in which the ClO dimer is the important intermediary in
the catalytic destruction of ozone. An alternative mechanism involving bromine
appears to make a minor contribution.
"An Artifact in the Measurement of N2O From Combustion Sources,"
L.J. Muzio (Fossil Energy Res. Corp., 23342C S. Pk., Laguna Hills CA 92653),
J.C. Kramlich, Geophys. Res. Lett., 15(12), 1369-1372, Nov.
The storage of moist combustion products containing SO2 and NO for periods
as short as two hours can lead to the formation of several hundreds of ppm of
NO2 in the sample containers where none originally existed. This finding may
have important consequences with respect to the validity of the existing
database on N2O emissions from combustion sources and the role of
combustion-generated N2O in the atmospheric N2O balance.
"ClO and O3 Stratospheric Profiles: Balloon Microwave Measurements,"
J.W. Waters (Jet Propulsion Lab., Calif. Inst. Technol., Pasadena CA 91109),
R.A. Stachnik et al., ibid., 15(8), 780-783, Aug. 1988.
Measurements made from two flights from Palestine, Texas (32 ° N) show
that ClO profiles and diurnal variation are in general agreement with theory,
but have somewhat less midday ClO near 34 km. Measured 35-45 km O3 is larger
than theory; no stratospheric O3 diurnal variation was observed, as expected.
"Nitric Acid and Ammonia Emissions from a Mid-Latitude Prescribed
Wetlands Fire," P.J. LeBel (NASA Langley Res. Ctr., Hampton VA 23665), W.R.
Cofer III et al., ibid., 792-795.
The mean NH3 and HNO3 mixing ratios measured in the smoke plume were 19 ppbv
and 14 ppbv, respectively, both significantly higher than background mixing
ratios. Although nitric acid correlated well with CO2 produced by combustion,
ammonia did not, suggesting a more complex relationship between combustion and
production/release of NH3.
"Special Section: Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical
Instrumentation Test and Evaluation Results (GTE/ABLE 2A)." Preface by R.J.
McNeal (Tropospheric Chem. Prog., NASA, Washington, D.C.), J. Geophys. Res.,
93(D2), 1349, Feb. 20, 1988.
The goal of the Tropospheric Chemistry Program is to develop an
understanding of this chemistry so that assessments can be made of the
susceptibility of the atmosphere to long-term chemical changes. Field
experiments were conducted in ecosystems that are known to exert a powerful
influence on global atmospheric chemistry and that in some cases are undergoing
profound changes as a consequence of natural processes and/or human impact.
Topics of interest to Global Climate Change Digest readers include
papers (not listed here) about CO2, NO, NOx, atmospheric hydrocarbons, CO,
tropospheric ozone, regional aerosol chemistry, biomass-burning emissions,
methane and methane flux.
"Trace Gas Emissions From a Mid-Latitude Prescribed Chaparral Fire,"
W.R. Cofer III (NASA Langley Res. Ctr., Hampton VA 23665), J.S. Levine et al.,
Mean emission ratios determined for CO, H2, CH4, total nonmethane
hydrocarbons, and N2O relative to CO2 were generally lower, except for N2O, than
mean emission rates previously reported for large biomass-burning field
experiments. No substantial differences in CO2-normalized emission ratios for
these gases, except N2O, were determined when samples from vigorously flaming
and mixed stages of combustion were compared.
"Absolute Absorption Coefficients of ClONO2 Infrared Bands at
Stratospheric Temperatures," J. Ballard (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton
Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX, UK), W.B. Johnston et al., ibid.,
This work was undertaken to reduce the uncertainties in chlorine nitrate
absorption coefficients by measuring their absolute values at typical
stratospheric temperatures in the laboratory.
"Measurements of Odd Nitrogen Compounds in the Stratosphere by the
ATMOS Experiment on Spacelab 3," J.M. Russell III (address immed. above),
C.B. Farmer et al., ibid., 1718-1736.
For the first time, measurement of all the main elements of the NOy family
(NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, HNO4, and ClONO2) were made directly. These results have
important implications because of the key role [NOy] plays in buffering the odd
chlorine depletion effect on ozone.
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Index of Abbreviations