February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1989
PLANT RESPONSE TO CO2
"Growth Response of Carrot and Radish to Atmospheric CO2
Enrichment," S.B. Idso (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Broadway, Phoenix
AZ 85040), B.A. Kimball, Environ. Exper. Bot., 29(2), 135-139,
Seven crops of carrots and 11 crops of radishes were grown from seed in
open-top, clear-plastic-wall, CO2-enrichment chambers throughout the entire year
at Phoenix, Arizona. Cumulative dry matter production at weekly intervals was
significantly increased by a 300 ppm increase in the CO2 content of the air at
all temperatures encountered, but with progressively greater effects being
registered at higher and higher temperatures.
"Leaf Ultrastructure, Carbohydrates and Protein of Soybeans
Grown Under CO2 Enrichment," J.C.V. Vu (Horticult. Res. Lab., USDA-ARS,
2120 Camden Rd., Orlando FL 32803), L.H. Allen Jr., G. Bowes, ibid.,
Soybeans grown under 800 micro L CO2 per liter showed increases of 37, 205,
108, 33, 22 and 31% in specific leaf weight, starch, sucrose, reducing sugars,
chlorophyll and soluble protein, respectively, over control plants at 330 micro
L CO2 per liter. The increase in starch storage sites, together with the
maintenance of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity, enable soybeans to
continue to exhibit high photosynthetic rates throughout the growth period under
high CO2 levels.
"Growth Dynamics and Water Use of Seedlings of Quercus alba
L. in CO2-Enriched Atmospheres," R.J. Norby (Environ. Sci. Div., Oak Ridge
Nat. Lab., POB 2008, Oak Ridge TN 37831), E.G. O'Neill, New Phytol.,
111(3), 491-500, Mar. 1989.
White oak seedlings were grown from a half-sib collection of acorns in pots
containing a nutrient-poor forest soil and maintained in controlled-environment
chambers having mean atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 389, 496 and 793 cm3 m-3.
CO2 enrichment increased plant growth rate primarily through increased unit leaf
rate rather than increased leaf area production. The most pronounced effect of
CO2 enrichment was increased whole plant water-use efficiency which showed
increases of 52% to 82% at progressively higher concentrations of CO2.
Limitations of resources, including water and nutrients, did not preclude plant
growth response to CO2 enrichment of the atmosphere.
"Effects of Drought and CO2 Enrichment on Competition Between Two
Old-Field Perennials," S. Marks (Biol. Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington IN
47405), B.R. Strain, ibid., 111(2), 181-186, Feb. 1989.
Studied the effects of drought stress and CO2 enrichment on the competition
between Aster pilosus (aster, C3) and Andropogon virginicus L.
(broomsedge, C4) under two CO2 concentrations (350 and 650 micro L L-1 ) and two
water treatments (well watered and water-limited). With CO2 enrichment, aster
was a stronger competitor than broomsedge and accounted for 75% of aboveground
pot biomass in both water treatments. CO2 enrichment also increased aster
survival when competing with broomsedge under extreme drought conditions.
"Growth and Senescence in Plant Communities Exposed to Elevated CO2
Concentrations on an Estuarine Marsh," P.S. Curtis (Sch. Natural Resour.,
Ohio State Univ., Columbus OH 43210), B.G. Drake et al., Oecologia, 78(1),
Three high marsh communities on the Chesapeake Bay, containing monospecific
populations of C3 and C4 species and these same species in combination were
exposed to a doubling in ambient CO2 concentration for one growing season.
Elevated CO2 resulted in increased shoot densities and delayed senescence in the
C3 species. There was no effect on C4 species. Results demonstrate that elevated
atmospheric CO2 can cause increased aboveground production in a mature,
"Effect of CO2 Enrichment and Nitrogen Availability on Resource
Acquisition and Resource Allocation in a Grass, Bromus mollis," A.
Larigauderie, D.W. Hilbert (Sys. Ecol. Res., San Diego State Univ., San Diego CA
92182), W.C. Oechel, ibid., 77(4), 544-549, 1989.
In a laboratory study, the effects of CO2 enrichment on the growth, biomass
partitioning, photosynthetic rates and leaf nitrogen concentration of the grass
were examined at a favorable and a low level of N availability. Low N treatment
resulted in lower photosynthetic rates. CO2 enrichment stimulated vegetative
growth at both high and low N during most of the vegetative growth. CO2 also
tended to stimulate seed production at high N and decrease it at low N.
"Phosphorus Stress Effects on Growth and Seed Yield Responses of
Nonnodulated Soybean to Elevated Carbon Dioxide," J.D. Cure (Dept. Bot.,
Duke Univ., Durham NC 27706), T.W. Rufty Jr., D.W. Israel, Agron. J.,
80, 897-902, Nov.-Dec. 1988.
Examined the effect of a wide range of P availabilities on plant response to
enriched atmospheric CO2. Growth and seed yield were maximized at the 0.25 and
0.50 mM P concentrations at 350 and 700 micro L L-1 , respectively. Growth and
yield were significantly increased at all except the lowest P concentration.
Results indicate that CO2 enrichment can result in stimulation of growth and
yield even at concentrations of P that limit plant growth at ambient CO2
"The Response of Plants to Elevated CO2--V. Performance of an
Assemblage of Serpentine Grassland Herbs," W.E. Williams (Biol. Dept.,
Trinity Coll., Hartford CT 06106), K. Garbutt, F.A. Bazzaz, Environ. Exper.
Bot., 28(2), 123-130, 1988.
Six species of herbs from the serpentine grassland in Stanford, California,
were grown individually and in competitive arrays under three levels of CO2:
350, 500 and 700 micro L/L. CO2 affected the biomass of some species in the
individually-grown plants but none in the competitive arrays. Results suggest
that in this community, competitive networks and adaptations to a low-resource
habitat may strongly damp the effects of CO2.
"Long-Term Elevation of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and the Carbon
Exchange Rates of Saplings of Pinus taeda L. and Liquidambar
styraciflua L.," N. Fletcher (Dept. Biol., Univ. Puerto Rico, Rio
Piedras PR 00931), C.H. Jaeger et al., Tree Physiol., 4(3),
255-262, Sep. 1988.
The carbon exchange rate (CER) was measured in leaves of Liquidambar
styraciflua L. (sweetgum) and Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) grown
from seed for more than 14 months at atmospheric CO2 concentrations of either
350 or 500 micro L L-1. The net effect of a long-term increase in CO2
concentration from 350 to 500 micro L L-1 was an increase in CER of loblolly
pine, but a slight decrease in CER of sweetgum. It is suggested that the
depression of CER in sweetgum resulted from a reduction in the activity of
"C4 Plants as Valuable Model Experimental Systems for the Study of
Photosynthesis," R.T. Furbank (Div. Plant Indus., CSIRO, Canberra, Aus.),
C.H. Foyer, New Phytol., 109(3), 265-277, July 1988.
A review of two decades of literature on the C4 cycle.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations