February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1989
"Direct Ozone Depletion in Springtime Antarctic Lower Stratospheric
Clouds," D.J. Hofmann (Dept. Phys., Univ. Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071), Nature,
337(6206), 447-449, Feb. 2, 1989.
Presents balloon measurements of ozone and cloud particles in the lower
stratosphere (10-17 km) at McMurdo Station, Antarctica which indicate that the
cloud particles are directly involved in ozone depletion in this region. The
reductions in ozone appear to be correlated with high concentrations of smaller
particles, which dominate the surface area density in the cloud. The
observations suggest a high degree of spatial inhomogeneity of free chlorine,
associated with lower stratospheric clouds, and are important in understanding
ozone depletion in this region.
"Formation of Chemically Active Chlorine Compounds by Reactions of
Atmospheric NaCl Particles with Gaseous N2O5 and ClONO2," B.J.
Finlayson-Pitts (Dept. Chem., Calif. State Univ., Fullerton, CA 92634), M.J.
Ezell, J.N. Pitts Jr., Nature, 337(6204), 241-243, Jan. 19,
Studies of the composition of particles collected in marine air environments
show that ClONO2 and N2O5 react readily with NaCl at 298 ° K. This suggests
that recycling of Cl- from solids is a general phenomenon, rather than being
restricted to the HCl/ice system. These reactions may provide another mechanism
for recycling ionic halide ions into gaseous species and should be considered in
models of stratospheric ozone depletion.
"In-Situ Detection of OH in the Lower Stratosphere with a Balloon
Borne High Repetition Rate Laser System," R.M. Stimpfle (ESL, Harvard
Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), J.G. Anderson, Geophys. Res. Lett., 15(13),
1503-1507, Dec. 1988.
Midday stratospheric OH density measurements showed that the OH mixing ratio
ranged from 16 + or - 5 ppt at 31 km to 4 + or - 3 ppt in the 27 to 24 km
region. Simultaneous ozone and water vapor measurements make it possible to
observe directly the relationship between O3, H2O and OH in the stratosphere.
"Solubility and Equilibrium Vapor Pressures of HCl Dissolved in
Polar Stratospheric Cloud Materials: Ice and the Trihydrate of Nitric Acid,"
D. Hanson (Sch. Phys., Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455), K. Mauersberger,
Found that HCl is about 20 times more soluble in nitric acid trihydrate than
in ice for stratospheric conditions. Develops a relation between HCl pressure
and substrate composition based on the Gibbs-Duhem equation. This along with
thermodynamic data can be used to obtain HCl pressure solubility behavior at
different temperatures. Discusses implications to the ozone hole.
"Importance of Nitrous Oxide in NOx Emissions," J. Jacobs
(Hauptabt. "Feuerungen", Tech. Ver Grosskraftwerksbetreiber e.V.,
Essen, FRG), K.R.G. Hein, VGB Kraftwerkstech, 68(8), 841-843,
1988. In German.
Discusses the effect of N2O in power plant emissions on the greenhouse
effect and atmospheric ozone depletion, and the problems of sampling and
measuring techniques for N2O.
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