February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 5, MAY 1989
CARBON DIOXIDE INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTER
The Center is one of three projects constituting the Carbon Dioxide
Information Analysis and Research Program (CDIARP), operated at Oak Ridge
National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In support of DOE's
carbon dioxide research activities, it compiles, evaluates and distributes
information of two types: 1) data sets (such as gridded surface air
temperatures, ozone concentrations, biological information and ocean chemistry)
and computer software; 2) research literature. A World Directory of CO2
Researchers and Policymakers is maintained, which contains over 3,000
individuals from 151 countries, who receive the semiannual bulletin CDIAC
Communications and an annotated publications list. The Winter 1989 bulletin
(16 pp.) summarizes research on ocean models, international fossil fuel CO2
emissions, climate in China after the Tambora eruption of 1815, and enhancement
of the positive effects of CO2 enrichment on plant growth by greenhouse warming.
It describes the latest numeric data package released (atmospheric CO2
concentrations measured at 30 globally distributed sites in the NOAA/GMCC Flask
Sampling Network) and new technical reports, and includes a calendar of events.
The most recent reports available from CDIAC are listed below with their DOE
report and CDIAC order numbers. The Bibliographic Information System (BIS)
contains 10,000 references on CO2 issues, and CDIAC will search this and other
national and international data bases upon request. To receive any of the
materials described here (at no charge) or more information or to be added to
the directory, contact Laura Morris at CDIAC, POB 2008, Oak Ridge TN 37831
Workshop on Sea Level Rise and Coastal Processes
(DOE/NBB-0086; CDIAC 024), A.J. Mehta (Univ. Fla., Gainesville), R.M. Cushman
(DOE Oak Ridge Nat. Lab.), 289 pp., Mar. 1989.
This report, based on earlier work by the University of Florida,
incorporates the conclusions of an international workshop held at Palm Coast,
Florida, in March 1988. It concludes that, with minor exceptions, the basic
knowledge of coastal processes (including hydrodynamics, sedimentary processes
and their interaction) and relevant available data are inadequate for predictive
modeling of long-term shoreline evolution. The problem is particularly difficult
for the United States coastline, much of which is composed of loose materials
including sand and muddy sediment. Badly needed are improvements in theory, and
better definition of wave forcing through adequate long-term observational
monitoring of the coastal wave field. Case studies and research recommendations
are included for various coastline processes.
Documentation of IAP Two-Level Atmospheric General Circulation
Model (DOE/ER/60314-H1; CDIAC TR044), Q.-C. Zeng (Inst. Atmos. Phys. (IAP),
Chinese Acad. Sci., Beijing, PRC), X.-H. Zhang et al., 383 pp., Feb. 1989.
Developed with the cooperation of several U.S. research groups and funding
by the U.S. DOE. The model's dynamic framework has the following unique
features: departures of dependent variables introduced to automatically cancel
truncation errors in mountainous regions; new coordinates and variables that
yield a compact form for the energy equation; a computational scheme that
conserves available energy modes; and physically consistent treatment of
boundary terms at atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-land interfaces. A future
report will describe performance of the model, which has been run for 10 model
years and can successfully simulate abrupt seasonal changes and several observed
oscillations in the atmosphere.
Environmental Consequences of CO2-Climate Interactions: The Need
for Integrated Analysis (ORNL/CDIAC-28), R.M. Cushman (Environ. Sci. Div.,
Oak Ridge Nat. Lab.), J.C. Waterhouse, M.P. Farrell, 18 pp., Jan. 1989.
Briefly reviews existing research to determine the net result of increasing
CO2 concentrations on agriculture, fisheries, forestry and water resources, and
discusses how the important interactions and feedbacks involved pose a
significant challenge to modeling the response of such resources to changing CO2
and climate. Especially important is the linkage of various models and
integration of processes that operate on different spatial and temporal scales.
Carbon Dioxide and Climate: Summaries of Research in FY 1988
(DOE/ER-0385), U.S. DOE Carbon Dioxide Res. Div., 87 pp., Oct. 1988.
Outlines program organization and funding for fiscal year 1988, and gives a
several-paragraph description of each research project in the various program
categories such as energy systems, vegetation systems, resource analysis and
scientific interface, along with addresses of all principal investigators.
The Use of Statistical Climate-Crop Models for Simulating Yield
to Project the Impacts of CO2-Induced Climate Change (DOE/ER/6044-H1; CDIAC
TR043), W.L. Decker (Coop. Inst. Appl. Meteor., Univ. Missouri-Columbia), R.
Achutuni, 42 pp., July 1988.
Discusses historical application of statistical models and their application
to the CO2 problem. Recommends development in three areas: 1) a technique that
results in a more reasonable adjustment than a fixed percentage increase by CO2
fertilization and incorporates interactions between climate anomalies and CO2
concentrations; 2) refinement of the relationship between yield and
transpiration to better estimate production for large areas, and 3) comparison
of estimates from a process model and a statistical model for a large area and
simulation of the variabilities of these two techniques using historical climate
Surface Energy Balance of Three General Circulation Models:
Current Climate and Response to Increasing Atmospheric CO2 (DOE/ER/-60422-H1;
CDIAC TR042), W.J. Gutowski (Atmos. & Environ. Res. Inc., Cambridge, Mass.),
D.S. Gutzler et al., 119 pp., May 1988.
Simulations using current and doubled CO2 levels in the GFDL, GISS and NCAR
models were compared to understand differences in surface temperature
climatology and in the models' treatment of processes that control surface
temperature. Fields of interest were averaged over a hierarchy of spatial
domains ranging from global to a few hundred kilometers in extent. Three major
recommendations are made: 1) devote more effort to understanding and simulating
the hydrologic cycle; 2) achieve better agreement in zonal climatology, since
much of the intermodel difference in regional climatology is attributable to
zonal mean differences; and 3) study effects of increased resolution of regional
simulation, particularly grid nesting as a means of improving regional modeling
over land areas.
Regional Intercomparisons of General Circulation Model
Predictions and Historical Climate Data (DOE/NBB-084; CDIAC TR041), D.L.
Grotch (Atmos. & Geophys. Sci. Div., Lawrence Livermore Nat. Lab.), 291 pp.,
Compares results for doubled CO2 levels from the NCAR, GISS, GFDL and OSU
A Primer on Greenhouse Gases (DOE/NBB-083; CDIAC TR040),
D.J. Wuebbles (Lawrence Livermore Nat. Lab.), J. Edmonds, 100 pp., Mar. 1988.
Summarizes, in the form of a large table, current understanding of gases of
direct radiative importance to climate, of gases that act as radiative
precursors, and of those important as intermediate constituents because of their
chemical properties. Among the conclusions drawn: uncertainties for the source
budgets of the key gases CH4, CO, N2O and NOx greatly exceed uncertainty for
CO2; the relationship between energy and emissions sources is stronger than had
been anticipated; chemical processes are an important link between energy and
other emissions sources and atmospheric composition.
The Prospect of Solving the CO2 Problem through Global
Reforestation (DOE/NBB-0082; CDIAC TR039), G. Marland (Oak Ridge Nat. Lab.),
66 pp., Feb. 1988.
Evaluates stimulation of forest growth as a short-term contribution to
offsetting CO2 released by fossil fuel burning. Conflicts in land use and
resource allocation are quickly encountered in any effort of significant
magnitude. The scale of effort required is roughly equal to doubling the annual
yield of all the world's closed forests or planting new fast-growing forests
over an area equivalent to the total of global forest clearing to date. The
immense cost of such a scheme must be compared with costs of other options for
reducing or adapting to changes in climate. Forestry is not a complete solution
but could play an important role.
A Glossary for Carbon Dioxide Research and Climate
(ORNL/CDIAC-22), R.E. Milleman, 60 pp., Mar. 1988.
This second edition defines 225 terms and explains their relevance to the
CO2-climate problem. It includes a table on geologic time scales and references
for further reading.
Bibliography on Tropical Rain Forests and the Global Carbon
Cycle. Vol. 1. An Introduction to the Literature (ORNL/CDIAC-24/V1), C.A.S.
Hall (State Univ. New York), S. Brown et al., 161 pp., May 1988.
Covers world literature on tropical rain forests and deforestation, land-use
changes in the tropics, tropical forest conversion and swidden agriculture as
related to the global carbon cycle, emphasizing the period 1980-1987. This
compendium of nearly 2000 evaluated entries is the basis of a series of similar
bibliographies specific to particular geographic areas, and is being
incorporated into the CDIAC Bibliographic Information System. Volume 2, by J.F.
Richards, will cover ecology and land use in South Asia.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations