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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 5, MAY 1989

REPORTS...
CARBON DIOXIDE INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTER

The Center is one of three projects constituting the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis and Research Program (CDIARP), operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In support of DOE's carbon dioxide research activities, it compiles, evaluates and distributes information of two types: 1) data sets (such as gridded surface air temperatures, ozone concentrations, biological information and ocean chemistry) and computer software; 2) research literature. A World Directory of CO2 Researchers and Policymakers is maintained, which contains over 3,000 individuals from 151 countries, who receive the semiannual bulletin CDIAC Communications and an annotated publications list. The Winter 1989 bulletin (16 pp.) summarizes research on ocean models, international fossil fuel CO2 emissions, climate in China after the Tambora eruption of 1815, and enhancement of the positive effects of CO2 enrichment on plant growth by greenhouse warming. It describes the latest numeric data package released (atmospheric CO2 concentrations measured at 30 globally distributed sites in the NOAA/GMCC Flask Sampling Network) and new technical reports, and includes a calendar of events. The most recent reports available from CDIAC are listed below with their DOE report and CDIAC order numbers. The Bibliographic Information System (BIS) contains 10,000 references on CO2 issues, and CDIAC will search this and other national and international data bases upon request. To receive any of the materials described here (at no charge) or more information or to be added to the directory, contact Laura Morris at CDIAC, POB 2008, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (615-574-0390).


Item #d89may13

Workshop on Sea Level Rise and Coastal Processes (DOE/NBB-0086; CDIAC 024), A.J. Mehta (Univ. Fla., Gainesville), R.M. Cushman (DOE Oak Ridge Nat. Lab.), 289 pp., Mar. 1989.

This report, based on earlier work by the University of Florida, incorporates the conclusions of an international workshop held at Palm Coast, Florida, in March 1988. It concludes that, with minor exceptions, the basic knowledge of coastal processes (including hydrodynamics, sedimentary processes and their interaction) and relevant available data are inadequate for predictive modeling of long-term shoreline evolution. The problem is particularly difficult for the United States coastline, much of which is composed of loose materials including sand and muddy sediment. Badly needed are improvements in theory, and better definition of wave forcing through adequate long-term observational monitoring of the coastal wave field. Case studies and research recommendations are included for various coastline processes.


Item #d89may14

Documentation of IAP Two-Level Atmospheric General Circulation Model (DOE/ER/60314-H1; CDIAC TR044), Q.-C. Zeng (Inst. Atmos. Phys. (IAP), Chinese Acad. Sci., Beijing, PRC), X.-H. Zhang et al., 383 pp., Feb. 1989.

Developed with the cooperation of several U.S. research groups and funding by the U.S. DOE. The model's dynamic framework has the following unique features: departures of dependent variables introduced to automatically cancel truncation errors in mountainous regions; new coordinates and variables that yield a compact form for the energy equation; a computational scheme that conserves available energy modes; and physically consistent treatment of boundary terms at atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-land interfaces. A future report will describe performance of the model, which has been run for 10 model years and can successfully simulate abrupt seasonal changes and several observed oscillations in the atmosphere.


Item #d89may15

Environmental Consequences of CO2-Climate Interactions: The Need for Integrated Analysis (ORNL/CDIAC-28), R.M. Cushman (Environ. Sci. Div., Oak Ridge Nat. Lab.), J.C. Waterhouse, M.P. Farrell, 18 pp., Jan. 1989.

Briefly reviews existing research to determine the net result of increasing CO2 concentrations on agriculture, fisheries, forestry and water resources, and discusses how the important interactions and feedbacks involved pose a significant challenge to modeling the response of such resources to changing CO2 and climate. Especially important is the linkage of various models and integration of processes that operate on different spatial and temporal scales.


Item #d89may16

Carbon Dioxide and Climate: Summaries of Research in FY 1988 (DOE/ER-0385), U.S. DOE Carbon Dioxide Res. Div., 87 pp., Oct. 1988.

Outlines program organization and funding for fiscal year 1988, and gives a several-paragraph description of each research project in the various program categories such as energy systems, vegetation systems, resource analysis and scientific interface, along with addresses of all principal investigators.


Item #d89may17

The Use of Statistical Climate-Crop Models for Simulating Yield to Project the Impacts of CO2-Induced Climate Change (DOE/ER/6044-H1; CDIAC TR043), W.L. Decker (Coop. Inst. Appl. Meteor., Univ. Missouri-Columbia), R. Achutuni, 42 pp., July 1988.

Discusses historical application of statistical models and their application to the CO2 problem. Recommends development in three areas: 1) a technique that results in a more reasonable adjustment than a fixed percentage increase by CO2 fertilization and incorporates interactions between climate anomalies and CO2 concentrations; 2) refinement of the relationship between yield and transpiration to better estimate production for large areas, and 3) comparison of estimates from a process model and a statistical model for a large area and simulation of the variabilities of these two techniques using historical climate records.


Item #d89may18

Surface Energy Balance of Three General Circulation Models: Current Climate and Response to Increasing Atmospheric CO2 (DOE/ER/-60422-H1; CDIAC TR042), W.J. Gutowski (Atmos. & Environ. Res. Inc., Cambridge, Mass.), D.S. Gutzler et al., 119 pp., May 1988.

Simulations using current and doubled CO2 levels in the GFDL, GISS and NCAR models were compared to understand differences in surface temperature climatology and in the models' treatment of processes that control surface temperature. Fields of interest were averaged over a hierarchy of spatial domains ranging from global to a few hundred kilometers in extent. Three major recommendations are made: 1) devote more effort to understanding and simulating the hydrologic cycle; 2) achieve better agreement in zonal climatology, since much of the intermodel difference in regional climatology is attributable to zonal mean differences; and 3) study effects of increased resolution of regional simulation, particularly grid nesting as a means of improving regional modeling over land areas.


Item #d89may19

Regional Intercomparisons of General Circulation Model Predictions and Historical Climate Data (DOE/NBB-084; CDIAC TR041), D.L. Grotch (Atmos. & Geophys. Sci. Div., Lawrence Livermore Nat. Lab.), 291 pp., Apr. 1988.

Compares results for doubled CO2 levels from the NCAR, GISS, GFDL and OSU models.


Item #d89may20

A Primer on Greenhouse Gases (DOE/NBB-083; CDIAC TR040), D.J. Wuebbles (Lawrence Livermore Nat. Lab.), J. Edmonds, 100 pp., Mar. 1988.

Summarizes, in the form of a large table, current understanding of gases of direct radiative importance to climate, of gases that act as radiative precursors, and of those important as intermediate constituents because of their chemical properties. Among the conclusions drawn: uncertainties for the source budgets of the key gases CH4, CO, N2O and NOx greatly exceed uncertainty for CO2; the relationship between energy and emissions sources is stronger than had been anticipated; chemical processes are an important link between energy and other emissions sources and atmospheric composition.


Item #d89may21

The Prospect of Solving the CO2 Problem through Global Reforestation (DOE/NBB-0082; CDIAC TR039), G. Marland (Oak Ridge Nat. Lab.), 66 pp., Feb. 1988.

Evaluates stimulation of forest growth as a short-term contribution to offsetting CO2 released by fossil fuel burning. Conflicts in land use and resource allocation are quickly encountered in any effort of significant magnitude. The scale of effort required is roughly equal to doubling the annual yield of all the world's closed forests or planting new fast-growing forests over an area equivalent to the total of global forest clearing to date. The immense cost of such a scheme must be compared with costs of other options for reducing or adapting to changes in climate. Forestry is not a complete solution but could play an important role.


Item #d89may22

A Glossary for Carbon Dioxide Research and Climate (ORNL/CDIAC-22), R.E. Milleman, 60 pp., Mar. 1988.

This second edition defines 225 terms and explains their relevance to the CO2-climate problem. It includes a table on geologic time scales and references for further reading.


Item #d89may23

Bibliography on Tropical Rain Forests and the Global Carbon Cycle. Vol. 1. An Introduction to the Literature (ORNL/CDIAC-24/V1), C.A.S. Hall (State Univ. New York), S. Brown et al., 161 pp., May 1988.

Covers world literature on tropical rain forests and deforestation, land-use changes in the tropics, tropical forest conversion and swidden agriculture as related to the global carbon cycle, emphasizing the period 1980-1987. This compendium of nearly 2000 evaluated entries is the basis of a series of similar bibliographies specific to particular geographic areas, and is being incorporated into the CDIAC Bibliographic Information System. Volume 2, by J.F. Richards, will cover ecology and land use in South Asia.

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