February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 10, OCTOBER 1989
"The Ultraviolet Radiation Environment of Antarctica: McMurdo
Station During September-October 1987," D. Lubin (Dept. Geophys. Sci.,
Univ. Chicago, Chicago IL 60637), J.E. Frederick, A.J. Krueger, J. Geophys.
Res., 94(D6), 8491-8496, June 20, 1989.
Daily data from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer were combined
with a model of atmospheric radiative transfer to compute the time evolution of
ultraviolet irradiance at wavelengths from 290 to 350 nm. At a wavelength near
305 nm, the irradiance in early October exceeds values appropriate to an
unperturbed ozone layer by a factor of 5-6. As December 21 approaches, the
noontime ultraviolet irradiance increases, irrespective of changes in ozone. Any
lengthening of the period of ozone depletion toward summer solstice will have a
substantial impact on the ultraviolet irradiance received by the Antarctic
"Measurements of Enhanced Springtime Ultraviolet Radiation at Palmer
Station, Antarctica," D. Lubin (address immed. above), J.E. Frederick et
al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 16(8), 783-785, Aug. 1989.
Measurements of ultraviolet solar spectra from Palmer Station, Antarctica,
have defined the surface radiation environment of the region during the Austral
spring of 1988. At wavelengths less than 310 nm, the influence of the 1988 ozone
hole is apparent. The noontime irradiance observed in the wavelength band
295-305 nm on October 19, two months prior to summer solstice, exceeded any
value measured through December 21.
"On the Disproportionate Role of Tropospheric Ozone as a Filter
Against Solar UV-B Radiation," C. Brühl (Max Planck Inst. für
Chem., Postfach 3060, 6500, Mainz, FRG), P.J. Crutzen, ibid., 16(7),
703-706, July 1989.
Increases in tropospheric ozone due to photochemical production, mostly due
to growing industrial and technological NOx emissions in the industrialized
Northern Hemisphere, can overcompensate for increased UV-B radiation resulting
from ozone depletions due to chlorine-catalyzed reactions in the stratosphere.
Analyses using calculated ozone profiles as well as those observed at
Hohenpeissenberg in Bavaria show that decreases of UV-B radiation at the earth's
surface are possible even when total ozone declines.
Comment and Reply on "Ultraviolet Levels Under Sea Ice During the
Antarctic Spring," Science, 245(4914), 194-195, July 14,
Spring UV enhancement will be exaggerated under the vast sea ice cover
surrounding Antarctica because of seasonal variations measured in ice turbidity.
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