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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1989

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY


Item #d89sep44

"Determination of Atmospheric Soot Carbon with a Simple Thermal Method," H. Cachier (Ctr. Faibles Radioactiv., Lab. mixte CNRS-CEA, Av. de la Terrasse, 91190 GIF sur Yvette, France), M.-P. Bremond, P. Buat-Ménard, Tellus, 41B(3), 379-390, July 1989.

There is increasing evidence that soot carbon aerosol can affect the environment through its high optical absorption of solar radiation. This study confirms that soot carbon is not composed primarily of elemental carbon, but appears to be a variable mixture of highly condensed organic compounds. These compounds may be either combustion-derived material or the result of low-temperature gas-to-particle conversion processes.


Item #d89sep45

"Atmospheric Methane," C.M. Stevens (Chem. Div., Argonne Lab., Argonne IL 60439), Chem. Geol., 71(1/3), 11-21, Dec. 15, 1988.

Reviews briefly the budget of fluxes from natural and anthropogenic sources for atmospheric methane based on isotopic data. Found that an increasing delta 13C trend in the Southern Hemisphere is attributed to increasing fluxes of isotopically heavy CH4 from biomass burning. In the Northern Hemisphere the average delta 13C of the source fluxes decreased from 1978 to 1983 at a rate much greater than can be reasonably accounted for by increasing fluxes of isotopically light CH4 from anthropogenic sources and, therefore, is attributed to increasing fluxes from natural sources.


Item #d89sep46

"Dimethyl Sulfide Production during Natural Phytoplanktonic Blooms," B.C. Nguyen (address immed. above), S. Belviso et al., Marine Chem., 24(2), 133-141, June 1988.

Investigates dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production during phytoplanktonic blooms experimentally by closely simulating natural marine environments, with multispecific populations, non-axenic conditions and natural light. Found that the gas production during the senescence phase is 7-26 times higher than during the growth phase. DMS production by the senescence process could be a major mechanism for the generation of DMS in seawater.


Item #d89sep47

"Least Independent Variables Method for Simulation of Tropospheric Ozone," D.J. Jacob (Div. Appl. Sci., Pierce Hall, Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), S. Sillman et al., J. Geophys. Res., 94(D6), 8497-8509, June 20, 1989.

Test simulations for summertime conditions at mid-latitudes indicate little loss in accuracy compared to detailed model simulations of chemistry with high time resolution. Minimization of the number of tracers and use of a long time-step reduces computer time and storage requirements. Parameterization of the chemical computation allows further savings in computer time.


Item #d89sep48

"The Vertical Distribution of CH4, N2O, CFC-12 and CFC-11 in the Middle Atmosphere at Mid-Latitudes," S. Lal (Phys. Res. Lab., Ahmedabad-380009, India), R. Borchers et al., J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 51(2), 81-90, 1989.

Presents data for the title chemicals from samples collected with cryogenic samplers from five balloon flights conducted during 1982-1984. A comparison of the present results with earlier measurements from 1977-1979 does not show any appreciable change in the mixing ratios of CH4 and N2O. However, an average tropospheric increase of (6.5 + or - 1)% per year was found for CFC-12 and CFC-11 with an increase in height, suggesting a time lag of about six years between the troposphere and the altitude region around 25 km. Measurements were also compared with the available satellite/spacelab data and with 1-D photochemical model calculations.


Item #d89sep49

"Stratospheric Ozone and Temperature Responses to Short-Term Solar Ultraviolet Variations: Reproducibility of Low-Latitude Response Measurements," L.L. Hood (Lunar Planet. Lab., Univ. Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721), Ann. Geophys., 6(5), 525-530, 1988.

Analyzes two independent, 22-month time intervals of NIMBUS 7 solar backscattered UV (SBUV) O3 and stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS) temperature measurements for the upper stratosphere at low latitudes to calculate mean responses to observed changes in solar UV spectral irradiance occurring on the time scale of the solar rotation period. Results support the validity of previously reported measurements on the 27-day time scale and impose firmer constraints on proposed theoretical models for the response of the stratosphere to solar UV forcing on both short and long time scales.

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