February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 3, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1990
GENERAL INTEREST AND POLICY
Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), Part 2. Thirty papers
in J. Geophys. Res., 94(D2), pp. 16,437-16,860, Nov. 30, 1989,
complete the special collection begun in the Aug. 30 issue. (See GLOBAL
CLIMATE CHANGE DIGEST, PROF. PUBS./ANTARCTIC OZONE EXPERIMENT, Nov. 1989.)
"Greenhouse Effect of Chlorofluorocarbons and Other Trace Gases,"
J. Hansen (NASA, Inst. Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10025), A.
Lacis, M. Prather, J. Geophys. Res., 94(D13), 16,417-16,421,
Nov. 20, 1989.
Compares the radiative forcing of the climate system due to changes of
atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. CFCs now provide about
one-quarter of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate
forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued
to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would
exceed that due to CO2.
"A Dent Outside the Hole?" G.P. Brasseur (NCAR, POB 3000,
Boulder CO 80307), Nature, 342(6247), 225-226, Nov. 16, 1989.
Comments on the following entry which suggests that, from August to
September, a substantial amount of high-latitude ozone is also destroyed outside
the Antarctic vortex by unidentified chemical processes. Reviews difficulties of
making necessary observations and possible explanations of anomalies in the
O3/NOy concentration ratio, which seem to coincide with the ozone depletion.
"High-Latitude Ozone Loss Outside the Antarctic Ozone Hole,"
M.H. Proffitt (NOAA Aeronomy Lab., 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), D.W. Fahey
et al., ibid., 233-237.
Uses data from the 1987 Antarctic Airborne Ozone Experiment to show that,
from mid-August until the end of the mission in late September, there was a
high-latitude ozone loss outside the Antarctic ozone hole. The geographic extent
of the ozone loss was larger than that generally identified as chemically
perturbed, and ozone was lost earlier in the year than previously reported.
Results indicate a possible anthropogenic component for this loss.
Special Issue: Nuclear War, Ambio, XVIII(7), 1989.
Contains papers from a conference on the environmental consequences of nuclear
war held in Stockholm in August 1988. Topics include: (1) the need for new
policies, (2) confirmation of the consequences of nuclear war, and (3) nuclear
winter and nuclear strategies. All papers included are listed below, some with
"Statement from a Conference on the Environmental Consequences of
Nuclear War," 358. An international group of scientists evaluated the 1988
United Nations report on the consequences of nuclear war. A consensus of policy
implications and research priorities was proposed. The latter include (1)
improving the understanding of long-term climate (6 months to a few years, and
atmospheric chemistry responses) and (2) developing new methods for addressing
interactions between components of the global environmental system, and (3)
developing scaling relationships to predict global climate change and resultant
biological impacts on ecosystems.
"Atmospheric Smoke Loading from a Nuclear Attack on the United States,"
R.D. Small (Pacific-Sierra Res. Corp., 12340 Santa Monica Blvd., Los Angeles CA
90025), 377-383. The smoke quantity generated depends strongly on the areas
targeted, urban geography, building construction and contents and, in the case
of wildland fires, on vegetation, season and weather. Smoke injection altitude
information was combined with a smoke source function to illustrate the effects
of an attack on the United States, and to show how these methods can be applied
to construct source functions for other combatant countries.
"Some Atmospheric and Climatic Effects of Nuclear War," A.S.
Ginzburg (Inst. Atmos. Phys., USSR Acad. Sci., 3 Pizhevsky pez., Moscow 109017,
USSR), 384-390. Recent Soviet studies on the problems of the nuclear winter
theory show that there are some partial natural analogs of the meteorological
and climatic consequences associated with a nuclear blast and mass forest fires
on earth. Results from a series of experimental fires help explain the phenomena
of the `blue' sun and moon as seen through the layer of forest smoke, and
provide some detailed information on the climatic effects of nuclear war.
"Policy Implications of Nuclear Winter and Ideas for Solutions,"
A. Robock, 360-366.
"The Environmental Impact of Nuclear War: Policy Implications,"
A.B. Pittock, 367-371.
"Policy Implications of Nuclear Winter," R. Turco, C. Sagan,
"Synthesis of Global Fallout Hazards in a Nuclear War," R. Turco,
"Environmental Impacts on Australia of a Nuclear War," A.B.
"Nuclear War Impacts on Noncombatant Societies: An Important Research
Task," W. Green, 402-405.
"The New Zealand Nuclear Impacts Study," K. Cronin, W. Green,
"Monitoring the Greenhouse Effect from Space," B. Jasani (Royal
United Services Inst., London, UK), Space Policy, 5, 94-98, May
Describes the greenhouse effect and lists satellites monitoring the
atmosphere. Considers the proposed earth observation system to study long- and
short-term weather and climatic changes using satellites and instruments on
polar platforms. Recommends establishing an international cooperative
environmental monitoring program.
"Hydrogen Vehicles: An Evaluation of Fuel Storage, Performance,
Safety, Environmental Impacts, and Cost," M.A. DeLuchi (Univ. Calif.,
Davis, Calif.), Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 14(2), 81-130, 1989.
A comprehensive review and analysis of hydrogen in efficient passenger
vehicles. Addresses hydrogen production and distribution, on-board storage
technology, refueling, vehicle performance and safety, the environmental impacts
of hydrogen use, and life-cycle costs. The environmental impact analysis focuses
on NOx emissions from vehicles, the impacts of making hydrogen from coal, and
the contribution to the greenhouse effect of CO2 emissions from the use of
"Atmospheric CO2: Causes, Effects, and Options," W.A.
Nierenberg (Scripps Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), Chem. Eng. Prog.,
85(6), 27-36, Aug. 1989.
Coping with global warming trends caused by atmospheric CO2 necessitates
long-term forecasting of social, economic and consumer trends. Such predictions
are vital to form a viable strategy to combat the greenhouse effect.
"Steps Towards an International Convention to Stabilize the
Composition of the Atmosphere," K. Ramakrishna (Woods Hole Res. Ctr., POB
296, Woods Hole MA 02543), G.M. Woodwell, Environ. Conserv., 16(2),
163-165, Summer 1989.
To clarify the issue of how to proceed to stop global warming, fifty
specialists in international policy, law and science met for a workshop at Woods
Hole Research Center in September 1988. They acknowledged that two paths to
success are necessary: (1) national actions which will ease the problem and
often work to the nations' economic advantage, and (2) international actions
which could be led by the U.N. system of leadership and would integrate efforts.
"Targeting Climate Change," R.J. Swart (Nat. Inst. Public
Health & Environ. Protec. (RIVM), the Netherlands), H. DeBoois, J. Rotmans,
Intl. Environ. Affairs, 1(3), 222-234, Summer 1989.
Explores the possibilities of setting a long-term target for climate change
and deriving emission control policies from this. Changes in regional ecosystems
could serve as indicators of the impact of climate change. An example of a
global policy model for the necessary analyses is described. Introduces the
concept of "temperature increasing potential," to be used in
conjunction with the concept "ozone depleting potential," to evaluate
the relative impact of different gases.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations