February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 3, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1990
EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE
"Carbon Dioxide Transport by Ocean Currents at 25° N Latitude in
the Atlantic Ocean," P.G. Brewer (Dept. Chem., Woods Hole Oceanog. Inst.,
Woods Hole MA 02543), C. Goyet, D. Dyrssen, Science, 246 (4929),
477-479, Oct. 27, 1989.
The North Atlantic Ocean has been considered to be a strong sink for
atmospheric CO2, yet results from this study show that the net flux in 1988
across 25° N was small, suggesting that the North Atlantic is a small sink
for CO2 in spite of its large heat loss. Results show it is, however, a larger
sink for O2.
"Modeling the Nutrient and Carbon Cycles of the North Atlantic: 2.
New Production, Particle Fluxes, CO2 Gas Exchange, and the Role of Organic
Nutrients," R. Schlitzer (Univ. Bremen, FB-1, Postfach 330440, 2800 Bremen
33, FRG), J. Geophys. Res., 94(C9), 12,781-12,794, Sep. 15,
Investigates the influence of dissolved organic nutrients on the oceanic
nutrient and carbon cycles with a series of models that use traditionally
accepted data or data from Sugimura and Suzuki (1988). The model with the
traditional values produced feasible results, while the models with data from
Sugimura and Suzuki were not feasible. More data for the dissolved organic
nutrients must be collected before conclusive answers concerning their role in
the oceanic nutrient cycles can be given.
"A Study of the Sulfur Cycle in the Antarctic Marine Boundary Layer,"
A.A.P. Pszenny (NOAA, Atlantic Oceanog. Meteor. Lab., 4301 Rickenbacker
Causeway, Miami FL 33149), A.J. Castelle, J.N. Galloway, J. Geophys. Res.,
94(D7), 9818-9830, July 20, 1989.
Average atmospheric concentrations (n=6) of SO2, aerosol CH3SO3-, and
aerosol non-sea-salt SO42- were 0.36, 0.22 and 0.34 nmol m-3, respectively. Box
model calculations, based on these limited data, suggest a total sulfur removal
rate from the local marine boundary layer approximately balancing the oceanic
source of dimethylsulfide (DMS). This model also suggests that heterogeneous SO2
oxidation may be the major pathway for DMS to sulfate conversion. Uncertainties
are large due to limited sampling time but these results show this area does not
differ much from other remote marine regions.
"Lidar Detection of Leads in Arctic Sea Ice," R.C. Schnell
(CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), R.G. Barry et al., Nature,
339(6225), 530-532, June 15, 1989.
This study shows that air-borne lidar provides a capability for locating
narrow leads that are smaller than the resolution of current satellite sensors.
The current view that turbulent fluxes from leads and polynyas affect only the
boundary layer needs modification. If heat and moisture from leads can regularly
reach the mid-troposphere, the role of the Arctic as a global heat sink may need
re-evaluation and climate models will require more realistic parameterizations
of surface-atmosphere fluxes. Results suggest that lead plumes may affect the
Rev. Geophys., 27(2), May 1989.
"Geophysiology, The Science of Gaia," J.E. Lovelock (Coombe Mill,
St. Giles on the Heath, Launceston, Cornwall PL15 9RY, England), 215-222. The
Gaia hypothesis postulates that the climate and chemical composition of the
Earth's surface environment is and has been regulated at a state tolerable for
the biota. Numerical models can now be used to illustrate the potential for
stable self-regulation of tightly coupled systems of organisms and their
"The Gaia Hypothesis: Can It Be Tested?" J.W. Kirchner (Energy
Resour. Group, Univ. Calif., Berkeley CA 94720), 223-235. The Gaia hypothesis
has made three valuable contributions, but they are impossible to scientifically
prove correct. It has (1) shown the vital role biogeochemical cycles play in
creating the Earth's physical and chemical environment, (2) suggested mechanisms
controlling climate, and (3) motivated scientific research to test these
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