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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 3, NUMBER 7, JULY 1990

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
GENERAL INTEREST, POLICY AND LAW


Item #d90jul1

"Stratospheric Ozone Depletion and Future Levels of Atmospheric Chlorine and Bromine," M.J. Prather (NASA Headquarters, Code EEU, Washington DC 20546), R.T. Watson, Nature, 344(6268), 729-734, Apr. 19, 1990.

Model calculations show that, by the end of the next century, atmospheric chlorine and bromine levels may decrease to levels prevalent before the onset of the ozone hole, but only if more stringent regulations are applied to halocarbon production than those currently proposed. A phase-out of almost all emissions of halocarbons is needed in the next century in order to decrease the atmospheric abundance of chlorine below 2 ppb (the minimum necessary for recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole) before the year 2100. Outlines ways to achieve this goal.


Item #d90jul2

"Agora: What Obligation Does Our Generation Owe to the Next? An Approach to Global Environmental Responsibility," Amer. J. Intl. Law, 84(1), Jan. 1990.

"Do We Owe a Duty to Future Generations to Preserve the Global Environment?" A. D'Amato, 190-198. Discusses Parfit's paradox of future individuals, which states that our intervention into the environment now will cause different people to be born from those who would have been born had we not intervened. Concludes that we should not limit our actions to those we are able to determine now as directly or indirectly benefiting ourselves or our descendents; we should act responsibly toward present and future persons.

"Our Rights and Obligations to Future Generations for the Environment," E.B. Weiss, 198-207. Argues that we have a right to use and enjoy the system, but no right to destroy its robustness and integrity for those who come after us. Uses the principles of intergenerational and intragenerational equity to support this view. Explains three basic principles to ensure intergenerational equity: conservation of options, conservation of quality and conservation of access.

"Our Responsibility to Future Generations," L. Gündling, 207-212. To achieve intergenerational equity we must first achieve equity within the present generation by tackling the problems of poverty-based environmental degradation. Needed is a treaty to establish a universal convention on the basic obligations of states to protect the environment and on their duty to future generations.


Item #d90jul3

"Global Warming: Legal Implications for the Arctic," E.B. Weiss (Georgetown Univ. Law Ctr., Rm. 402, 600 New Jersey Ave. NW, Washington DC 20001), Georgetown Intl. Environ. Law Rev., II(2), 81-98, Fall 1989.

Explains the ramifications of temperature change in the Arctic, which is expected to occur more rapidly than the global average change, and the need to ensure that the rate of change is slow enough that environmental and social systems have time to adapt to the new conditions. Calls for action now by the international community to control pollution, minimize transport accidents, prevent military build-ups, control resource disputes, undertake necessary scientific research and environmental monitoring, and engage in other actions necessary to maintain sustainable economic development of the region.


Item #d90jul4

"The Importance of Fuel Cells to Address the Global Warming Problem," M.P. Walsh (2800 N. Dinwiddie St., Arlington VA 22207), J. Power Sources, 29, 13-28, 1990.

Assesses the important greenhouse gases and the current significance of vehicle emissions, followed by historical and likely future trends in vehicles and their use. Shows how the increased use of fuel cells in the transport sector could double vehicle fuel efficiency and lower CO2 emissions. Urges greater efforts to make this technology more readily available.


Item #d90jul5

"Land Use Related Sources of Greenhouse Gases: Present Emissions and Possible Future Trends," A.F. Bouwman (Intl. Soil Ref. & Info. Ctr., POB 353, NL 6700 AJ Wageningen, Neth.), Land Use Policy, 154-164, Apr. 1990.

If fossil CO2 emissions continue their strong increase in the coming decades, the effects of reducing deforestation or even of massive forest plantations on future atmospheric CO2 levels will probably be only modest. However, afforestation can benefit soil conservation and wood demand. Enumerates possible ways to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions related to fertilizer use and landfills.


Item #d90jul6

"The Role of Soils and Land Use in the Greenhouse Effect," A.F. Bouwman (address immed. above), Netherlands J. Agric. Sci., 37, 13-19, 1989.

Compares different modeling approaches of the biosphere as a basis for analyzing major greenhouse gas emissions from soils (CO2, CH4, N2O, NO and CO). Concludes that the total budgets of greenhouse gases are relatively well known, but the allocation among the various sources needs to be improved. Suggests improvements in global geographic information on land use changes, and measurement techniques for average fluxes of greenhouse gases from large, ecologically uniform areas.

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