February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 3, NUMBER 7, JULY 1990
GENERAL INTEREST, POLICY AND LAW
"Stratospheric Ozone Depletion and Future Levels of Atmospheric
Chlorine and Bromine," M.J. Prather (NASA Headquarters, Code EEU,
Washington DC 20546), R.T. Watson, Nature, 344(6268), 729-734,
Apr. 19, 1990.
Model calculations show that, by the end of the next century, atmospheric
chlorine and bromine levels may decrease to levels prevalent before the onset of
the ozone hole, but only if more stringent regulations are applied to halocarbon
production than those currently proposed. A phase-out of almost all emissions of
halocarbons is needed in the next century in order to decrease the atmospheric
abundance of chlorine below 2 ppb (the minimum necessary for recovery of the
Antarctic ozone hole) before the year 2100. Outlines ways to achieve this goal.
"Agora: What Obligation Does Our Generation Owe to the Next? An
Approach to Global Environmental Responsibility," Amer. J. Intl. Law,
84(1), Jan. 1990.
"Do We Owe a Duty to Future Generations to Preserve the Global
Environment?" A. D'Amato, 190-198. Discusses Parfit's paradox of future
individuals, which states that our intervention into the environment now will
cause different people to be born from those who would have been born had we not
intervened. Concludes that we should not limit our actions to those we are able
to determine now as directly or indirectly benefiting ourselves or our
descendents; we should act responsibly toward present and future persons.
"Our Rights and Obligations to Future Generations for the Environment,"
E.B. Weiss, 198-207. Argues that we have a right to use and enjoy the system,
but no right to destroy its robustness and integrity for those who come after
us. Uses the principles of intergenerational and intragenerational equity to
support this view. Explains three basic principles to ensure intergenerational
equity: conservation of options, conservation of quality and conservation of
"Our Responsibility to Future Generations," L. Gündling,
207-212. To achieve intergenerational equity we must first achieve equity within
the present generation by tackling the problems of poverty-based environmental
degradation. Needed is a treaty to establish a universal convention on the basic
obligations of states to protect the environment and on their duty to future
"Global Warming: Legal Implications for the Arctic," E.B. Weiss
(Georgetown Univ. Law Ctr., Rm. 402, 600 New Jersey Ave. NW, Washington DC
20001), Georgetown Intl. Environ. Law Rev., II(2), 81-98, Fall
Explains the ramifications of temperature change in the Arctic, which is
expected to occur more rapidly than the global average change, and the need to
ensure that the rate of change is slow enough that environmental and social
systems have time to adapt to the new conditions. Calls for action now by the
international community to control pollution, minimize transport accidents,
prevent military build-ups, control resource disputes, undertake necessary
scientific research and environmental monitoring, and engage in other actions
necessary to maintain sustainable economic development of the region.
"The Importance of Fuel Cells to Address the Global Warming Problem,"
M.P. Walsh (2800 N. Dinwiddie St., Arlington VA 22207), J. Power Sources,
29, 13-28, 1990.
Assesses the important greenhouse gases and the current significance of
vehicle emissions, followed by historical and likely future trends in vehicles
and their use. Shows how the increased use of fuel cells in the transport sector
could double vehicle fuel efficiency and lower CO2 emissions. Urges greater
efforts to make this technology more readily available.
"Land Use Related Sources of Greenhouse Gases: Present Emissions and
Possible Future Trends," A.F. Bouwman (Intl. Soil Ref. & Info. Ctr.,
POB 353, NL 6700 AJ Wageningen, Neth.), Land Use Policy, 154-164, Apr.
If fossil CO2 emissions continue their strong increase in the coming
decades, the effects of reducing deforestation or even of massive forest
plantations on future atmospheric CO2 levels will probably be only modest.
However, afforestation can benefit soil conservation and wood demand. Enumerates
possible ways to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions related to fertilizer use and
"The Role of Soils and Land Use in the Greenhouse Effect," A.F.
Bouwman (address immed. above), Netherlands J. Agric. Sci., 37,
Compares different modeling approaches of the biosphere as a basis for
analyzing major greenhouse gas emissions from soils (CO2, CH4, N2O, NO and CO).
Concludes that the total budgets of greenhouse gases are relatively well known,
but the allocation among the various sources needs to be improved. Suggests
improvements in global geographic information on land use changes, and
measurement techniques for average fluxes of greenhouse gases from large,
ecologically uniform areas.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations