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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d90jun45

"On the Dependence of Climate Sensitivity on Convective Parameterization," W.M. Cunnington (Meteorol. Off., Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SZ, UK), J.F.B Mitchell, Clim. Dynamics, 4(2), 85-93, Apr. 1990.

Two sensitivity experiments in which CO2 is doubled and sea-surface temperatures are enhanced determined the influence of the convective parameterization on simulated climate change. A penetrative scheme gives the greater upper tropospheric warming (over 4.5 K compared to 4 K) and the greater reduction in upper tropospheric cloud, consistent with recent CO2 sensitivity studies. In contrast, a nonpenetrative scheme gives a 0.7 Wm-2 greater increase in net downward radiation at the top of the atmosphere, implying a larger tropical warming, inconsistent with recent CO2 studies. Discusses possible explanations for these results.

Item #d90jun46

"Ocean-Circulation Model of the Carbon Cycle," R. Bacastow (Scripps Inst. Oceanog., San Diego, La Jolla CA 92093), E. Maier-Reimer, ibid., 95-125.

Describes a three-dimensional model of the natural carbon cycle in the oceans that includes the effect of ocean biota. Their effect on ocean chemistry is represented in a simple way, and model distributions of chemical species are compared with distributions observed during GEOSECS and other expeditions.

Item #d90jun47

"Global Atmospheric Chemistry of CFC-123," R.G. Prinn (Dept. Earth Sci., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), A. Golombek, Nature, 344(6261), 47-49, Mar. 1, 1990.

Examines the suitability of CFC-123 as a substitute for ozone-destroying CFC-11, using a 3-D global model to analyze the chemical destruction rates of CFC-123 by various processes. Confirms that the chief sink is destruction by OH radicals below 12 km, accounting for 88% of its loss. For equal rates (by mass) of CFC-123 and CFC-11 emission to the atmosphere, the molar content in the atmosphere and the injection rate of chlorine into the stratosphere are, respectively, 48 and 14 times greater for CFC-11 than for CFC-123 in steady state.

Item #d90jun48

"Rapid Climatic Change and the Deep Ocean," R.G. Watts (Dept. Mech. Eng., Tulane Univ., New Orleans LA 70118), M. Morantine, Clim. Change, 16(1), 83-97, 1990.

Uses a simple, transient, two-dimensional (latitude-depth) upwelling-diffusion ocean model, coupled with an energy balance climate model, to determine the surface temperature response to changes in the deep water formation rate. Changes in surface temperature are large and rapid with a large magnification at high latitudes, suggesting that rapid climate changes during the Glacial-Holocene transition could have been the result of variations in the rate of deep water formation. If true, this mechanism is essentially transient in nature and cannot be predicted using steady state models.

Item #d90jun49

"Obtaining Sub-Grid-Scale Information From Coarse-Resolution General Circulation Model Output," T.M.L. Wigley (Clim. Res. Unit, Univ. East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), P.D. Jones et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95(D2), 1943-1953, Feb. 20, 1990.

Explores the relationship between local temperature and precipitation and large-scale climate, using regression analysis to meet the need of the impact analyst for small-scale information, which is given only coarser resolution model output. Uses examples to show that there are large spatial differences in the amount of local climate variance that can be explained by large-scale data.

Item #d90jun50

"Modeling Coastal Landscape Dynamics," R. Costanza (Chesapeake Biol. Lab., Univ. Maryland, Solomons MD 20688), F.H. Sklar, M.L. White, BioSci., 40(2), 91-107, Feb. 1990.

Process-based dynamic spatial ecosystem simulation can examine long-term natural changes and human impacts. Two developments, ready accessibility of extensive spatial and temporal databases and advances in computer power and convenience, make this modeling feasible. This approach can be scaled up for global ecosystem modeling to assess the impacts of global climate change, and also scaled down to assess local effects in more detail.

Item #d90jun51

"The Global Geochemistry of Bomb-Produced Tritium: General Circulation Model Compared to Available Observations and Traditional Interpretations," R.D. Koster (NASA-GSFC, Code 624, Greenbelt MD 20771), W.S. Broecker et al., J. Geophys. Res., 94(D15), 18,305-18,326, Dec. 20, 1989.

Uses the Goddard Institute for Space Studies 8 x 10 atmospheric general circulation model to simulate tritium transport from the upper atmosphere to the ocean. The simulation shows that tritium is delivered to the ocean about equally by vapor and precipitation. The model result is insensitive to several imposed changes in source location, model parameterizations and model resolution. Explains reasons for possible discrepancies.

Item #d90jun52

"Atmosphere-Ocean Heat Fluxes and Stresses in General Circulation Models," S.J. Lambert (Can. Clim. Ctr., Downsview, Ont. M3H 5T4, Can.), G.J. Boer, Atmos.-Ocean, 27(4), 692-715, Dec. 1989.

The coupling of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) to oceanic general circulation models requires that each behaves appropriately in the uncoupled mode. The atmosphere-ocean fluxes of energy and momentum developed in a collection of twelve AGCMs are compared with the climatological estimates of these terms. The fluxes are found to be qualitatively similar to the climatological estimates, but with quantitative differences of considerable magnitude for some models and scatter among model values.

Item #d90jun53

"Differences Among Model Simulations of Climate Change on the Scale of Resource Regions," R.M. Cushman (Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge TN 37831), P.N. Spring, Environ. Mgmt., 13(6), 789-795, Nov./Dec. 1989.

Quantifies the differences in temperature and precipitation simulated by three major GCMs for four specific regions: agricultural, demographic, hydrologic and political. Both the current climate and the climatic response to a doubling CO2 are considered. Even when the data were averaged on a seasonal basis, marked differences in areal average climate were predicted by the different models in each region, for both the control and the doubled CO2 climates.

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