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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d90mar10

"Natural and Anthropogenic Sources of Ozone Depletion in Polar Areas--Climatic and Oceanic Consequences," G. Cali (Univ. of Naples, Italy), A. Mazzarella, A. Palumbo, Nuovo Cimento C, Serie 1, 12, 107-111, Jan./Feb. 1989.

Studied the influence of sunspot number on the ozone layer. Concludes that solar activity is responsible for a large portion of ozone depletion recently observed in high latitudes. Discusses climatic and oceanic consequences.

Item #d90mar11

"Detection of HOCl in the Antarctic Stratosphere," G.C. Toon (Jet Propulsion Lab., MS 183-401, Calif. Inst. Technol., Pasadena CA 91109), C.B. Farmer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 16(12), 1375-1377, Dec. 1989.

Measured the burden (integrated vertical column abundance) over Antarctica of HOCl from solar absorption spectra in September 1987. The result, 1.5 + or - 0.4 x 1014 molecules/ cm-2, poses an important constraint on the amount of HOx inside the Antarctic winter vortex and on the contribution of the HOCl catalytic cycle to the observed springtime ozone depletion.

Item #d90mar12

"Profiles of Nitric Oxide in the Upper Stratosphere," Y. Kondo (Res. Inst. Atmos., Nagoya Univ., Toyokawa, Aichi, Japan), A. Iwata et al., ibid., 1379-1382.

Presents data from a chemiluminescent NO detector and an in situ ozone instrument made from high altitude balloons launched at Aire sur l'Adour (44 N, 0 W) and from Gap (44.5 N, 6 E). The average NO concentration was 9 ppbv at 35 km, increasing with altitude to 11.5 ppbv at 40 km. Below 34 km, the NO concentration in September 1987 was 20% to 35% larger than in June 1988. Provides an accurate determination of the daytime mid-latitude NO concentration in the upper stratosphere in summer and autumn.

Item #d90mar13

"Comparison of Stratospheric Clouds in the Antarctic and the Arctic," D.J. Hofman (Dept. Phys., Univ. Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071), T. Deshler, ibid., 1429-1432.

Compares the particle size distribution from balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric clouds, in the Arctic and Antarctic. Two distinct classes of particles were found: a small mode (r 0.2 micro m) in which at least half of the available condensation nuclei have grown, and a large mode (r 2-3 micro m) in which fewer than 1% of the available condensation nuclei have grown. Suggests that the small particles found in large layers are related to fast cooling events such as those associated with mountain lee waves.

Item #d90mar14

"Balloon Borne In-Situ Detection of OH in the Stratosphere from 37 to 23 km," R.M. Stimpfle (Dept. Earth and Planetary Sci., 40 Oxford St., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), L.B. Lapson et al., ibid., 1433-1436.

OH abundances ranged from 88 + or - 31 pptv in the 35-36 km interval to 0.9 + or - 0.8 pptv in the 23-24 km interval. Simultaneous detection of ozone and water vapor densities was carried out with separate on-board instruments.

Item #d90mar15

Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 70(12), Dec. 1989. The following summarize sessions from April 1989 meetings in San Francisco.

"The NATO Advanced Research Workshop in Dynamics, Chemistry, and Photochemistry in the Middle Atmosphere of the Southern Hemisphere," A. O'Neill (Meteor. Off., Bracknell, Berkshire, UK), C.R. Mechoso, 1546-1552. Two sessions dealt solely with stratospheric ozone depletion and suggest areas that need more study, such as quantifying and classifying the differences between hemispheres.

"Summary of the Seventh Conference on Meteorology of the Middle Atmosphere," R.A. Madden (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), 1553-1559. Among the presentations: parameterization of global-scale dynamical feedback in simplified general circulation models used for long-term ozone climate scenarios; the links between nitrogen and chlorine chemistry in the photochemistry leading to Ant-arctic ozone depletion.

Item #d90mar16

"Evidence for Stratospheric Nitric Acid Condensation from Balloon and Rocket Measurements in the Arctic," F. Arnold (Max-Planck Inst., Postfach 103 980, D-6900 Heidelberg, FRG), H. Schlager et al., Nature, 342(6249), 493-498, Nov. 30, 1989.

Strong evidence for nitric acid condensation at altitudes of about 18-23 km is provided by balloon- and rocket-borne measurements made near Kiruna, northern Sweden, in January 1989. Nitric acid condensation is believed to be a necessary step in the chemical preconditioning required for chlorine-catalyzed ozone destruction.

Item #d90mar17

"Photoisomerization of OClO: A Possible Mechanism for Polar Ozone Depletion," V. Vaida (Dept. Chem., Univ. Colo., Boulder CO 80309), S. Solomon et al., Nature, 342(6248), 405-408, Nov. 23, 1989.

Reports laboratory studies of OClO spectroscopy and photoproducts which suggest that atomic Cl and O2 are formed to some extent in the photodissociation process. Points toward possible photoisomerization to the unstable species ClOO, probably by way of the 2B2 excited state of OClO, reinforcing the idea that photolysis of OClO may contribute to ozone depletion.

Item #d90mar18

"Nitrogen Oxides from High-Altitude Aircraft: An Update of Potential Effects on Ozone," H.S. Johnston (Dept. Chem., Univ. Calif., Berkeley CA 94720), D.E. Kinnison, D.J. Wuebbles, J. Geophys. Res., 94(D13), 16,351-16,363, Nov. 20, 1989.

Investigates the sensitivity of stratospheric ozone to NOx emissions in conjunction with current understanding of atmospheric chemical and physical processes. Among the major findings are: (1) emissions of nitrogen oxides can reduce stratospheric ozone on a global basis, depending strongly on the injection altitude and magnitude; (2) reduction also depends on the latitude of the injections, with the maximum ozone reduction at tropical injections, but, for a given injection, the largest ozone column reductions occur in the polar regions; and (3) for very large Clx mixing ratios, NOx emissions can increase the ozone column, partially counteracting the ozone reduction caused by Clx.

Item #d90mar19

"A Three-Dimensional Model of Chemically Active Trace Species in the Middle Atmosphere During Disturbed Winter Conditions," K. Rose (Inst. Meteor., Free Univ. Berlin, Berlin FRG), G. Brasseur, ibid., 16,387-16,403.

Model results exhibit the gross features seen in the real atmosphere during a simulated wave number 1 warming, including the transport of chemically active trace species such as ozone, nitric acid and nitrogen oxides. The model simulation suggests that the polar vortex behaves as a material entity during the planetary wave disturbance. At the same time, poleward vortex transport is accomplished through tongues of tracers originating in the tropics. Addresses the effect of nonlinearity on transport.

Item #d90mar20

"New Spectral Features of Stratospheric Trace Gases Identified from High-Resolution Infrared Balloon-Borne and Laboratory Spectra," A. Goldman (Dept. Phys., Univ. Denver, Denver CO 80208), F.J. Murcray et al., ibid., 94(D12), 14,945-14,955, Oct. 20, 1989.

Reports results obtained for several important strato-spheric trace gases, HNO3, ClONO2, HO2NO2, NO2, and COF2, in the 8-12 micro m spectral region. Many new features of these gases have been identified in the stratospheric spectra. Comparison of the new spectra with line-by-line simulations shows that previous spectral line parameters are often inadequate, and new analysis of high resolution laboratory and atmospheric spectra will be required for many bands.

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