February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 3, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1990
PROTOCOL REVISION AND HCFCs
Modifications to the Montreal Protocol
were developed at a London meeting in late June. (See Global Climate Change
Digest, NEWS, Aug. 1990.) The following articles discuss their implications.
"CFCs: The Case for Alternatives," B. Joyner, Chem. &
Industry, p. 468, July 16, 1990. An industrial manager reflects on the
protocol meeting, noting that while proposed substitutes are not entirely
benign, they are the best industry has to offer at this time.
"Warming to Global Agreement," P. Aldous, Nature, p. 6,
July 5, 1990. Summarizes the meeting agreements and presents two analyses of
their effects. The U.K. Department of the Environment projects chlorine loading
in the troposphere by the year 2050 to be 2.9 parts per billion by volume, half
that predicted for the original protocol. An analysis carried out for Nature
by scientists at the University of East Anglia estimates that the amended
protocol will reduce the global mean temperature increase between today and 2100
by only about 0.3 degrees Centigrade.
"Carbon Dioxide Will Be Harder," J. Maddox, ibid., p. 11.
An editorial arguing that the protocol review should have emphasized
verification and compliance, as they will be even more important for any general
"Ozone Depletion Accord: Plan Will Aid Developing Nations," D.
O'Sullivan, Chem. Eng. News, pp. 6-7, July 9, 1990; "Ozone-Safe
Technology Fund Likely Vital to Montreal Treaty Compliance," P.S. Zurer,
ibid., pp. 19-20, Aug. 6. As a result of the London meeting, an
International Multilateral Fund is being set up to help developing countries
adopt technologies less damaging to the ozone layer. The fund should reach $240
million after India and China join the protocol as expected, and is being viewed
(except by the U.S. Administration) as a precedent for future environmental aid
projects. The second article describes several case studies, carried out by
Egypt, Mexico and Brazil with assistance from the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, on the amount of financial aid needed.
"Fate of CFC Alternatives Remains up in the Air," P. Zurer, ibid.,
pp. 5-6, July 16, 1990. Discusses testimony before the U.S. Congress by federal
agencies and Friends of the Earth concerning HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons),
which are under development as temporary alternatives to CFCs but have
significant ozone-depletion potential. The London meeting failed to adopt
mandatory limits on HCFCs. Du Pont, the largest U.S. manufacturer of CFCs, in
June suspended plans to significantly expand HCFC production capacity, pending
resolution of ozone depletion provisions of the U.S. Clean Air Act (see below).
"Cheaper Alternatives for CFCs," D. MacKenzie, New Scientist,
pp. 39-40, June 30, 1990. Discusses in detail the problem of determining the
cost of helping the Third World introduce ozone-safe technologies, which depends
largely on alternative approaches to refrigeration. The costs may not be as
large as some are claiming.
"CFC Replacements: The Race Is On," Chem. in Britain, May
1990. The compounds to replace CFCs have been determined; chemical industries
now race to find the cheapest way to make them.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations