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FROM VOLUME 3, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1990
MARINE BIOLOGY AND DMS
"Diving into the Organic Soup," J.R. Toggweiler (Geophys. Fluid
Dynamics Lab., Princeton Univ., POB 308, Princeton NJ 08542), Nature,
345(6272), 203-204, May 17, 1990. Discusses the broader context of the
article by Koike in the same issue (see next entry). Ninety-eight percent of the
ocean's saprosphere, made up of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and particulate
detritus, consists of dissolved, colloidal and submicrometer particle pools that
largely defy characterization. The Koike article describes a few simple
experiments that show how the DOM appear to be actively involved in the
biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen.
"Role of Sub-Micrometre Particles in the Ocean," I. Koike
(Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, Nakano, Tokyo 164, Japan), H. Shigemitsu et al.,
Presents results from epifluorescence microscopy and from particle counting
that has determined the vertical distribution of sub-micrometer particles.
Greater than 95% of these particles are nonliving, but are composed largely of
organic material with a high water content and occur in the upper layers of the
ocean in concentrations of the order of 106 per milliliter. At least 10% of
dissolved organic matter may be in the form of these small particles.
"Global Ocean-to-Atmosphere Dimethyl Sulfide Flux," D.J.
Erikson III (Scripps Inst. Oceanog., San Diego A-024, La Jolla CA 92093), S.J.
Ghan, J.E. Penner, J. Geophys. Res., 95(D6), 7543-7552, May 20,
Calculates the global ocean-to-atmosphere flux of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) on
a monthly basis with 4.5° x 7.5° latitude/longitude spatial resolution
using the NCAR Community Climate Model 1 to generate global surface radiation
fields. The oceanic DMS concentrations computed agree with the experimental data
in those regions not impacted by high biological productivity. In areas of
relatively high oceanic productivity, the solar-radiation-DMS flux relationship
underestimates the ocean-to-atmosphere DMS flux and the subsequently computed
surface ocean DMS concentrations.
"Sources of Variability in Satellite-Derived Estimates of
Phytoplankton Production in the Eastern Tropical Pacific," K. Banse (Sch.
Oceanog., WB-10, Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), M. Yong, ibid.,
95(C5), 7201-7215, May 15, 1990.
Calculates column production from satellite data simulated by shipboard
pigment values, using data collected from 1967 to 1986 from 138 stations, and
correlates this with simultaneously observed primary production rates. Shows
that with this data the accuracy of the column production as calculated from
simulated satellite observations is limited largely by the unpredictable
variability of the photosynthetic rate near light saturation.
"Biological Removal of Dimethyl Sulphide from Sea Water," R.P.
Kiene (Univ. Georgia Marine Inst., Sapelo Island GA 31327), T.S. Bates, Nature,
345(6277), 702-705, June 21, 1990.
Presents data from incubation experiments, carried out at sea, which show
that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is removed by microbial activity 3 to 430 times
faster than by ventilation to the atmosphere. These results have significant
implications for climate feedback models involving DMS emissions and highlight
the importance of the microbial food web in oceanic DMS cycling.
"Airborne Measurements of Dimethylsulfide, Sulfur Dioxide, and
Aerosol Ions over the Southern Ocean South of Australia," H. Berresheim
(Georgia Inst. Technol., Sch. Earth & Atmos. Sci., Atlanta GA 30332), M.O.
Andreae et al., J. Atmos. Chem., 10(3), 341-370, Apr. 1990.
Vertical distributions measured in maritime air west of Tasmania show
dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentrations in the mixed layer to be typically 15-60
ppt and to decrease in the free troposphere to <<1-2.4 ppt at 3 km. Based
on model calculations the DMS lifetime in the mixed layer is estimated to be 0.9
days and the DMS sea-to-air flux to be 2-3 micro mol m-2 d-1. Model
calculations suggest that roughly two-thirds of DMS in the mixed layer is
converted to SO2 and one-third to methane-sulfonate.
"Dimethylsulfide and the Alga Phaeocystis pouchetii in
Antarctic Coastal Waters," J.A.E. Gibson et al.,--H.R. Burton (Australian
Antarctic Div., Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050, Australia), Marine
Biol., 104(2), 339-346, 1990.
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) measured in water collected in the southern ocean
from May 1987 to January 1988 rose dramatically from December onwards in
conjunction with increased alga bloom. The ratio of DMS concentration to the
number of cells of the alga was considerably higher than reported for blooms of
this species elsewhere in the ocean. Up to 10% of the total flux of DMS to the
atmosphere may come from Antarctic seas.
"Dimethyl Sulfide in the Baltic Sea: Annual Variability in Relation
to Biological Activity," C. Leck (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Stockholm, S-106 91
Stockholm, Sweden), U. Larsson et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95(C3),
3353-3363, Mar. 15, 1990.
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in the surface waters of the brackish Baltic Sea
showed a clear seasonal variation related to biological activity. Lowest
concentrations were in the winter, with peak values following the spring bloom
as well as a pronounced maximum during the summer. Demonstrates that variations
in DMS concentrations are the result of complex physiological as well as
"Interlaboratory Calibration and Sample Analysis of Dimethyl
Sulphide in Water," S.M. Turner (Sch. Environ. Sci., Univ. E. Anglia,
Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), G. Malin et al., Marine Chem., 29(1),
47-62, Mar. 1990. Tests and assesses four calibration techniques. Discusses the
problems associated with the analysis of samples with high densities of
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