February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 8, AUGUST 1991
GENERAL INTEREST AND POLICY
"The Potential for Ozone Depletion in the Arctic Polar Stratosphere,"
W.H. Brune (Dept. Meteor., Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Pk. PA 16802), J.G.
Anderson et al., Science, 252(5010), 1260-1266, May 31, 1991.
Data from the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment and earlier data
indicate that the Arctic polar stratosphere is similar in many respects to that
of the Antarctic, where an ozone hole has been identified. Local ozone losses in
the Arctic translate into 5-8% losses in the vertical column abundance of ozone.
As the amount of stratospheric chlorine inevitably increases by 50% over the
next two decades, ozone losses recognizable as an ozone hole may well appear.
"New Ozone Hole Phenomenon," A.M. Thompson (NASA-GSFC, Code
916, Greenbelt MD 20771), Nature, 352(6333), 282-283, July 25,
Discusses implications of results reported in the following entry,
indicating that as the stratospheric ozone hole develops during the Antarctic
spring, the troposphere below also loses ozone.
"Decrease of Summer Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations in Antarctica,"
R.C. Schell (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), Nature, 351(6329),
726-729, June 27, 1991.
The observed decrease is caused by enhanced penetration of ultraviolet
radiation associated with stratospheric ozone depletion, coupled with increased
transport of ozone-poor marine air from lower latitudes.
"Efficient International Agreements for Reducing Emissions of CO2,"
M. Hoel (Dept. Econ., Univ. Oslo, PB 1095 Blindern, N-0317, Oslo 3, Swed.), The
Energy J., 12(2), 93-107, Apr. 1991.
Traditional agreements for emissions of greenhouse gases that rely on
uniform percent reductions have two disadvantages: widespread participation is
unlikely because the costs and advantages of reduction vary greatly for
different countries, and such agreements are generally not efficient. However,
an international CO2 tax and tradable CO2 quotas are two alternative schemes
that are much more efficient, and properly executed could make all or most
countries better off with the agreement than without.
Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72(7), July 1991.
"The Aerial Fertilization Effect of CO2 and Its Implications for Global
Carbon Cycling and Maximum Greenhouse Warming," S.B. Idso (U.S. Water Cons.
Lab., Phoenix AZ 85040), 962-965. The fertilization effect of increasing CO2
provides a strong impetus for forest expansion, in true Gaian fashion, and it
appears that the planet can adjust to rising CO2 as long as the human processes
causing it do not produce excess deleterious pollutants. However, much more work
is needed on this topic, as the effects of altered patterns of disease, pests,
temperature and rainfall must all be included in the final analysis.
Pp. 1009-1011: correspondence between H. Ellsaesser and S. Schneider on the
influence of water-vapor feedback mechanisms on global warming.
"Report on Reports: `Climate Change and World Agriculture,'"
reviewed by V.W. Ruttan (Dept. Agric. & Appl. Econ., Univ. Minnesota, St.
Paul MN 55100), Environ., 33(6), 25-29, July-Aug. 1991.
An extensive review and discussion of a study coordinated by M. Parry. The
reviewer emphasizes that global climate change may have a more severe impact in
developing countries and possibly in several of the formerly centrally planned
"Improving U.S. Interagency Coordination of International
Environmental Policy Development," W.A. Nitze (Alliance to Save Energy,
Washington, D.C.), ibid., 33(4), 10-13; 31-37, May 1991.
Interagency policymaking groups in the executive branch of the U.S.
government have failed to address adequately the pressing environmental issues
that have emerged. Suggestions are made for improvement, including a new
cabinet-level council to integrate the foreign and domestic aspects of
environmental and energy issues into U.S. policy development.
"Alternative Transportation Fuels and Air Quality," T.Y. Chang
(Ford Motor Co., Dearborn MI 48121), R.H. Hammerle et al., Environ. Sci.
Technol., 25(7), 1190-1197, July 1991.
Includes discussion of the global warming potential of several alternative
fuels under consideration for improving urban air quality, including ethanol,
hydrogen, electricity and compressed natural gas.
"Identification of Widespread Pollution in the Southern Hemisphere
Deduced from Satellite Analyses," J. Fishman (NASA-Langley, MS 401A,
Hampton VA 23665), K. Fakhruzzaman et al., Science, 252(5013),
1693-1696, June 21, 1991.
Satellite-derived ozone measurements, combined with ozonesonde data,
demonstrate that ozone originating from biomass burning in southern Africa is
transported throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere. Observations of carbon
monoxide and methane at middle- and high-latitude stations in Africa, Australia
and Antarctica also likely reflect effects of biomass burning, showing that even
the most remote regions on this planet may be significantly more polluted than
Discussion between R.C. Balling (Arizona State Univ.) and J.B. Smith (U.S.
EPA) concerning the likelihood of future temperature increases in the Great
Lakes region, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72(6), 833-834, June
Special Section: "Greenhouse Gases, Sweden," Ambio,
20(3-4), May 1991.
"Sources and Sinks of Greenhouse Gases in Sweden: A Case Study,"
H. Rodhe (Dept. Meteor., Stockholm Univ., S-106 91 Stockholm, Swed.), H.
Eriksson et al., 143-145. To compute the net anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and
methane, their radiative properties and atmospheric lifetimes were considered.
If such factors as accumulation of carbon by Swedish forests and reduction in
methane emissions by draining wetlands are included, CO2 accounts for 40-50% of
the resulting net anthropogenic emissions of CO2 equivalents, and CFCs and N2O
become relatively more important.
"Sources and Sinks of Carbon Dioxide in Sweden," H. Eriksson
(Dept. Forest Soils, Swed. Univ. Agric. Sci., Box 7001, S-750 07 Uppsala,
Swed.), 146-150. An estimate of the country's carbon budget shows that an amount
equal to more than half the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion is
accumulating primarily as forest biomass. Figures are given for releases from
cultivated organic soil and accumulations of peat.
"Emissions of N2O in Sweden--Natural and Anthropogenic Sources,"
K. Robertson (Dept. Water/Environ., Linköping Univ., S-581 83 Linköping,
Swed.), 151-155. Anthropogenic emissions have doubled since the pre-industrial
era, coming primarily from stationary combustion, traffic and fertilizer use.
Uncertainties in estimates are large.
"Sources and Sinks of Methane in Sweden," B.H. Svensson (Dept.
Microbiol., Swed. Univ. Agric. Sci., Box 7025, S-750 07 Uppsala, Swed.), J.C.
Lantsheer, H. Rodhe, 155-160. Emissions from Sweden are about 0.6% of the
estimated global flux. Net flux, considering such factors as amounts taken up by
forests, could be 10% lower.
"Climate Research Review--Greenhouses from the Deep Freeze:
Ice-Cores and Global Warming," M. Allen (Dept. Atmos. Phys., Univ. Oxford,
UK), Energy Policy, 19(4), 405-407, May 1991.
Discusses how chemical analysis of air trapped in ice cores from the
Antarctic ice sheet translates into a picture of the world's climate tens of
thousands of years ago, and how causes of past climatic changes can be
distinguished from their effects.
Special issue on global warming: The Energy J., 12(1),
Jan. 1991. (Energy Econ. Educational Foundation Inc., 1101 14th St. NW,
Washington DC 20005).
"Introduction: Facts and Uncertainties," L.C. Cox (Lamont-Doherty
Geolog. Obs., Columbia Univ., Palisades, N.Y.), 1-8.
"Formulating Greenhouse Policies in a Sea of Uncertainty," L.B.
Lave (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa.), 9-22.
"Economic Activity and the Greenhouse Effect," Y. Ogawa (Inst.
Energy Econ., Tokyo, Japan), 23-36.
"The Cost of Slowing Climate Change: A Survey," W.D. Nordhaus
(Dept. Econ., Yale Univ., New Haven, Conn.), 37-66.
"Productivity Trends and the Cost of Reducing CO2 Emissions," W.W.
Hogan (Kennedy Sch. Govt., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass.), D.W. Jorgenson,
"Global CO2 Emission Reductions: The Impacts of Rising Energy Costs,"
A.S. Manne (Stanford Univ., Stanford, Calif.), R.G. Richels, 87-108.
"Cutting CO2 Emissions: The Effects of Alternative Policy Approaches,"
J. Whalley (Dept. Econ., Univ. Western Ontario), R. Wigle, 109-125.
"EPA's Scenarios for Future Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Global
Warming," D.A. Lashof (Nat. Resour. Defense Council, Washington, D.C.),
"The Greenhouse Effect: A View from Europe," D. Pearce (London
Environ. Econ. Ctr., London), E. Barbier, 147-160.
"CO2 Emissions from Major Developing Countries: Better Understanding
the Role of Energy in the Long Term," J. Sathaye (Intl. Energy Studies
Grp., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Univ. California, Berkeley, Calif.), A. Ketoff,
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations