February 28, 2007
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FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 1991
Three items from Energy Policy, 19(9), Nov. 1991:
"Renewables in China," C. Yingrong (Zheijiang Design Inst. of
Water Conserv. & Elec. Pwr., 46 Zhen Dong Lou, Hangzhou, China 310002),
892-896. Outlines the development of renewable energy sources in China,
especially in the vast rural areas, and problems encountered.
"National Energy Strategy--Powerful Ideas for USA," D. Jones
(London, UK), 897-898. The strategy is impressive in its range and consistency
of approach, but concerns involve climate change, reliance on surplus Middle
East oil and other issues.
Correspondence concerning energy analysis of renewable energy sources,
nuclear power and global warming, and energy efficiency, 813-815.
"The Impact of a Broad-Based Energy Tax on the U.S. Economy,"
R. Boyd (Dept. Econ., Ohio Univ., Athens OH 45701), N.D. Uri, Energy Econ.,
13(4), 258-271, Oct. 1991.
Studied the effects on the general and agricultural sectors of a
10-cents-per-million-Btu tax, using a general equilibrium model. Found little
impact on the agricultural sector; producing sectors would have reduced output,
while cumulative goods and services from the consuming sectors would rise.
Social welfare would decline more than the amount of revenue gained by the
government. (A more detailed version of this work appears in Intl. J. Energy
Res., 15(7), 561-580, Sep. 1991.)
Energy Policy, 19(8), Oct. 1991, consists of eight
articles in its series on the promise of renewable energy sources for the
post-fossil-fuel age. Topics include biomass, solar, wind, hydroelectric, ocean
wave and tide, and geothermal. The series began with the Jan.-Feb. 1991 issue.
"An International View of Nuclear Power Plants," A. Newman, Environ.
Sci. Technol., 25(10), 1682-1683. The journal's associate editor
writes that in the final analysis, nuclear power may be the least of many evils;
its fate in the U.S. may hinge on experiences in other nations.
"Establishing an International Energy Efficiency Agency--A Response
to the Threat of Global Climate Change," H. Geller (Amer. Council Energy
Efficient Econ., 1001 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington DC 20036), Energy
Policy, 19(7), 689-695, Sep. 1991.
Such an agency could strengthen energy efficiency initiatives in
industrialized countries, and provide capital and other assistance for
implementing energy efficiency in developing and eastern European countries.
Appropriate activities would include information dissemination, research and
development, technology demonstration, development of energy efficiency targets
for specific end-uses and conversion technologies, and financing for poor
Four additional articles from Energy Policy, 19(7), Sep.
"How Urbanization Affects Energy Use in Developing Countries,"
D.W. Jones (Energy Div., Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge TN 37831), 621-630.
Includes results of a regression analysis of 59 developing countries for 1980,
and an estimate of the elasticity of energy consumption.
"The Proof of the Pudding: Making Energy Efficiency Work," J.B.
Robinson (Dept. Environ., Univ. Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. N2L 3G1, Can.),
631-645. The literature on energy efficiency behavior and program evaluation
suggests that reliance on market mechanisms alone is insufficient.
"The Integration of Renewable Electricity Sources," M.J. Grubb
(Energy/Environ. Prog., Roy. Inst. Environ. Aff., 10 St. James's Sq., London
SW1Y 4LE, UK), 670-688. The special characteristics of renewable electricity
output will probably not hinder their use, provided their role in integrated
power systems is properly managed and reflected in tax provisions.
"Hidden Persuaders v. Policy," S. Boehmer-Christiansen
(SPRU, Brighton, UK), 695-696. A report on the conference Energy,
Environment and Climate (EEC '90) (Stuttgart, Germany, Oct. 1990) of energy
experts from the East and West.
Two articles from Energy Policy, 19(6), July-Aug. 1991:
"Improving Energy Efficiency in the USA--The Federal Role," E.
Hirst (Energy Div., Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge TN 37831), 567-577. Describes
specific steps the U.S. Department of Energy could take in the 1990s.
"Improving Appliance Efficiency in Indonesia," L. Schipper (Energy
Anal. Prog., Lawrence-Berkeley Nat. Lab., Berkeley CA 94720), S. Meyers,
578-588. Analyzes the current situation and projects effects of efficiency
implementation, based on a survey of 2700 households. Many conclusions apply to
other developing countries.
"Market Barriers to Energy-Efficiency Investments," R.J.
Sutherland (Argonne Nat. Lab., 901 D St. SW, S. 702, Washington DC 20024), The
Energy J., 12(3), 15-34, July 1991.
The conservation literature argues that many cost-effective conservation
measures are discouraged by market barriers, but a review of these barriers
shows that in general they neither discourage investment nor are they market
failures. Two market failures that do show the need for government support of
conservation policies are the external costs of energy consumption and
production, and the lack of aggregate insurance against energy-related risks.
"Manufacturing Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Nine OECD
Countries, 1973-1987," A. Torvanger (SAF Ctr. Appl. Res., Gaustdalléen
21, N-0371 Oslo 3, Norway), Energy Econ., 13(3), 168-186, July
The overall manufacturing CO2 intensity, defined as emissions divided by
value added, was reduced 42% over the period. A Divisia index approach shows the
main contribution to this was a general reduction in manufacturing energy
intensity; other factors were reduced production in CO2-intensive sectors,
higher efficiency in electricity generation, and a larger nuclear share at the
expense of oil.
Correspondence regarding biomass energy and factors affecting energy use,
Environment, 33(5), 4-5, June 1991.
Energy Sources, 13(1), Jan.-Mar. 1991 contains nine
articles on solar and biomass energy originally presented at the International
Symposium on Energy Options for the Year 2000 (Wilmington, Delaware, Sep.
1988). In the introduction to this special issue, J. Byrne and S.M. Hoffman
discuss the implications of several papers for greenhouse gas emissions. Paper
topics range from biomass sources (energy plantations in the U.S., and peat) to
solar housing potential in Argentina.
"Development of Strategies for Reducing Air Pollutant Emissions in
the European Community," P. Russ (IIP, Univ. Karlsruhe, Herlzstr. 16,
D-7500, Karlsruhe 21, Ger.), H.-D. Haasis et al., Intl. J. Energy Res.,
14(8), 833-847, Oct.-Nov. 1990. Discusses optimal future energy supply
structures that result from different strategies for air-pollution control in
the European Community countries, obtained from an energy flow optimization
model extended with environmental impact modules (EFOM-ENV). Based on work for
the Commission of the European Communities (Brussels) and the European Research
Center for Air Pollution Control Measures (PEF), Karlsruhe, in cooperation with
research institutes in EC member countries.
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