February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1991
"A Study of Leakage from the UK Natural Gas Distribution System,"
C. Mitchell (Earth Resour. Res., 258 Pentonville Rd., London N1 9JY, UK), J.
Sweet, T. Jackson, Energy Pol., 18(9), 809-818, Nov. 1990.
Because the largest constituent of natural gas is methane, an important
greenhouse gas, even a small leak from the natural gas supply system has a
powerful greenhouse effect. Although British Gas maintains that the leakage rate
is around 1% of supply, the authors are confident the leakage rate is above 1.9%
and consider it more likely that the leakage rate is between the medium (5.3%)
and high (10.8%) cases analyzed.
"Climatic Concerns: Possible Energy Implications for Selected Lower
Income Asian Nations," W. Barron (Ctr. Urban Studies, Univ. Hong Kong,
Pokfulam Rd., Hong Kong), P. Hills, ibid., 819-827.
Sufficient concern exists over global warming to call into question
development paths based on steadily expanding use of fossil fuels. Examines
fossil carbon emissions by fuel type and consuming sector in the context of the
countries' national energy plans and policies.
"Energy Policy and Public Opinion," S.A. Boehmer-Christiansen
(Energy Prog., Univ. Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RH, E. Sussex, UK), ibid.,
Discusses the thesis that public concern about the environment is in part
engineered to make public and corporate policy socially acceptable. Bases the
discussion on the history of acid rain abatement in West Germany and nuclear
waste disposal in the U.K. and relates it to energy policy.
"Energy, Environment and Development--Some Directions for Policy
Research," D.B. Brooks (Intl. Develop. Res. Ctr., POB 8500, Ottawa, Ont.
K16 3H9, Can.), H. Krugmann, ibid., 838-844.
Argues that change is needed in the agenda for policy research on the
conjunction of problems linking energy, environment and development. Future
research should emphasize these directions: energy options and delivery systems;
energy use and the global environment; the political economy of
energy/environment/development; biomass as a source of supply; urban
transportation as an end use.
"Conference Reports: A Time for Promises," ibid.,
875-876. The Role of Government in Energy (Mar. 29, 1990, London, Inst.
Mech. Eng.) is summarized by S.A. Boehmer-Christiansen. Energy for a New
Century: The European Perspective (May 3-4, 1990, Brussels) is summarized by
"Energy Efficiency and Economic Fallacies," M.J. Grubb (Roy.
Inst. Intl. Affairs, 10 St. James Sq., London SW1Y 4LE, UK), ibid., 18(8),
783-785, Oct. 1990.
Taken from the book Energy Policies and the Greenhouse Effect. As
energy efficiency improves, some argue that the apparent savings would be offset
by the tendency to use more energy because it is cheaper. However, policy-driven
measures aimed at bringing more efficient technologies into imperfect markets
will usually result in real net energy savings only slightly smaller than those
suggested by a simple engineering analysis.
"Natural Gas and the Greenhouse," Nature, 247(6295),
720, Oct. 25, 1990. An exchange of letters relating to the amount of greenhouse
gases to be emitted if natural gas is used instead of coal in power plants.
"The Cinderella Options: A Study of Modernized Renewable Energy
Technologies. Part 1-A. Technical Assessment," M.J. Grubb (Roy. Inst. Intl.
Affairs, 10 St. James Sq., London SW1Y 4LE, UK), Energy Pol., 18(6),
525 ff., July-Aug. 1990. "...Part 2. Political and Policy Analysis,"
ibid., 18(10), 711-725, Oct. 1990.
Changes resulting from moving toward energy efficiency, natural gas and
renewable sources could either deepen or alleviate political conflicts,
depending on the timing and path of the changes. Removing existing market
obstacles, increasing R&D expenditures, and various forms of support can be
clearly justified and could make a large impact on renewable energy
"The Internal Energy Market: The New Coalition against Energy
Efficiency and Environmental Concerns?" M. Brand (Fraunhofer Inst.,
Breslauer Str. 48, D-7500 Karlsruhe 1, FRG), E. Jochem, ibid., 18(8),
694-701, Oct. 1990. Given growing environmental threats, implementation of the
internal market must be accompanied by an energy policy that favors energy
conservation and by harmonizing environmental policies.
"Delinking of Energy Consumption and Economic Growth--The German
Experience," U. Hansen (Power Eng. Dept., Univ. Essen, FRG), ibid.,
18(7), 631-640, Sep. 1990. Time and pace of technological development
are major determinants in energy conservation; the price element is more
difficult to isolate and may have had a lesser effect in an affluent society.
"CO2 Abatement Cost in West Germany," F. Conrad (Nuclear Res.
Ctr., Karlsruhe, FRG), ibid., 669-670.
Extends to West Germany the Keepin and Kats analysis for the U.S. of
comparative costs of using power more efficiently and generating nuclear power,
and finds the nuclear strategy preferable. However, this is a minor point
compared to the strategic importance of nuclear energy for the substitution of
"Increasing Energy Supply Not Inevitable," D.N. Zillman (Univ.
Utah, Salt Lake City UT 84112), ibid., 671-672.
Disputes those who say that energy efficiency improvements cannot reduce
energy demand or that increasing living standards can only be based on
increasing energy demand. The means are available to reverse the trend based on
these conclusions; what is needed is the political choice to embark on a
nonnuclear response to global warming.
"Energy--Environment--Development," ibid., 675-677. R.K.
Pachauri (Tata Energy Res. Inst., New Delhi, India) reports on the meeting, 12th
Annual International Conference of the IAEE (Jan. 4-6, New Delhi). S.
Boehmer Christiansen (SPRU, Univ. Sussex, Brighton, UK) reports on Are
Energy and Environmental Policy One and the Same Thing? A BIEE Seminar (June
9, 1990, London).
"Can Nuclear Energy Contribute to Slowing Global Warming?" J.
Murray (Uranium Inst., 12th Fl., Bowater House, 68 Knightsbridge, London SW1X
7LT, UK), ibid., 18(6), July-Aug. 1990.
In the short term, expansion of nuclear energy can be only relatively
modest; energy efficiency measures may offer more immediate potential to contain
greenhouse gas emissions. For the long term, nuclear energy can make a
significant contribution in industrialized and developing countries, provided
that the momentum of nuclear development is maintained.
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