February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1991
"Atmospheric OCS: Evidence for a Contribution of Anthropogenic
Sources?" H.G. Bingemer (Biogeochem. Dept., Max Planck Inst., Postfach
3060, D-6500 Mainz, FRG), S. Bürgermeister et al., J. Geophys. Res.,
95(D12), 20,617-20,622, Nov. 20, 1990.
Measured carbonyl sulfide in the boundary layer of the marine atmosphere on
board ship in the Atlantic Ocean between 37° S and 51° N. Observed a
pronounced northward increase of OCS of 26 ppt per 10° latitude. OCS
correlated with CH4 and CO values obtained during the cruise by another
"The Global Cycle of Carbon Monoxide: Trends and Mass Balance,"
M.A.K. Khalil (Ctr. Atmos. Studies, Oregon Grad. Ctr., 19600 NW Von Neuman Dr.,
Beaverton OR 97006), R.A. Rasmussen, Chemosphere, 20(1-2),
The annual global emissions of CO are estimated to be 2,600 + or - 600 Tg,
60% of which are anthropogenic in origin. Approximately 85% of the atmospheric
CO is removed by reaction with OH radicals. If the present view of the global CO
cycle is correct, then it is likely that increasing levels of CO will contribute
to widespread changes in atmospheric chemistry.
"Tropospheric Chemical Composition: Overview of Experimental Methods
in Measurement," G.P. Ayers (Div. Atmos. Res., Commonwealth Sci. Res.
Organization, Mordialloc, Victoria, Aust.), R.W. Gillett, Rev. Geophys.,
28(3), 297-314, Aug. 1990.
Gives insight into methods used by experimentalists to measure various
chemical constituents of the troposphere. Includes selected illustrations of a
range of measurements and the difficulties involved in determining trace gas
species to as low as one part in 1012 in gaseous, aqueous and aerosol phases.
"The Variability of Biogenic Sulfur Flux from a Temperate Salt Marsh
on Short Time and Space Scales," M.C. Morrison, M.E. Hines (Earth, Oceans,
Space Inst., Univ. New Hampshire, Durham NH O3824), Atmos. Environ.,
24A(7), 1771-1779, 1990. Reports on field observations of flux
variability to improve estimates of the annual emissions of biogenic sulfur.
"Gaseous Emissions from Canadian Boreal Forest Fires," W.R.
Cofer III (Atmos. Sci., NASA Langley, Hampton VA 23665), J.S. Levine et al.,
ibid., 1653-1659. Results argue strongly for the need to characterize
biomass burning emissions from the major global vegetation/ecosystems to improve
the quality of any assessments of biomass burning impacts on atmospheric
chemistry and climate.
"Nitrous Oxide Dissolved in Soil Solution: An Insignificant Pathway
of Nitrogen Loss from a Southeastern Hardwood Forest," E.A. Davidson (NASA
Ames, Moffitt Field, Calif.), W.T. Swank, Water Resour. Res., 26(7),
1687-1690, July 1990. Extrapolation from measurements made at a southern
Appalachian site for losses from soil solution over the global area occupied by
hardwood forest indicates that this source of N2O is insignificant for global
"Infrared Spectroscopic Detection of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) in the
Lower Stratosphere and Upper Troposphere," C.P. Rinsland (NASA-LRC,
MS-401A, Hampton VA 23665), L.R. Brown, C.B. Farmer, J. Geophys. Res.,
95(D5), 5577-5585, Apr. 20, 1990.
Identifies the unresolved SF6 nu3 band Q branch at 947.9 cm-1 in
high resolution solar occultation spectra of the lower stratosphere and upper
troposphere. Data, recorded by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy
instrument during its first flight on board the shuttle, are compared with
previously reported values and discussed in terms of the atmospheric lifetime of
SF6, the long-term trend of atmospheric SF6, and the possible role of SF6 as an
atmospheric greenhouse gas.
"Emissions of Some Trace Gases from Biomass Fires," D.A. Hegg
(Dept. Atmos. Sci., AK-40, Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), L.F. Radke et
al., ibid., 5669-5675.
Airborne measurements from seven forest fires in North America are used to
determine the average emission factors of 13 trace gases, which are then used to
estimate the contributions of biomass burning to their world-wide emissions. The
significance of such emissions on global and local scales are discussed.
"The Influence of Termites on Atmospheric Trace Gases: CH4, CO2,
CHCl3, N2O, CO, H2 and Light Hydrocarbons," M.A.K. Khalil (Inst. Atmos.
Sci., Oregon Grad. Ctr., 19600 N.W. Von Neumann Dr., Beaverton OR 97006), R.A.
Rasmussen et al., ibid., 3619-3634.
Using field studies on mounds of Australian termites, estimates that on a
global scale termites emit about 12 x 1012 g yr-1 of CH4 (mostly in summer) and
about 4 x 1015 g yr-1 of CO2. A view of the role of termites in the global
carbon cycle is constructed; although uncertainties are large, termites are
probably not an important global source of methane.
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