February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1991
New Publication: Modelling of Geo-Biosphere Processes, a
quarterly journal in English concerned with modeling micro- and macroscale
processes, will debut in Sep. 1991, and will cover topics such as interactions
of processes, modeling principals, conceptual and other types of models, model
implementation and validation. Obtain authors' guidelines from: Catena Verlag,
Brockenblick 8, W 3302 Cremlingen-Dested, FRG; tel: 05306/1530; fax: 05306/1560.
For the first issue, submit papers by Mar. 1, 1991.
"Development of Global Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation
Models," G.A. Meehl (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), Clim. Dynamics,
5(1), 19-33, Nov. 1990.
Coupling of general circulation models for atmosphere, ocean and sea ice
dates to the late 1960s. The most recent advances in computing power and climate
modeling tech-niques have allowed coarse grid models to be run synchronously.
The next generation will run on faster, larger memory computers and will address
problems involving atmospheric chemistry processes, detailed interactions with
the biosphere, and climate sensitivity that is dependent on a more accurately
"Analysis of Climate Variability in General Circulation Models:
Comparison with Observations and Changes in Variability in 2xCO2 Experiments,"
L.O. Mearns (NCAR, addr. immed. above), S.H. Schneider et al., J. Geophys.
Res., 95(12), 20,469-20,490, Nov. 20, 1990.
The NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) was examined for several areas of the
United States. The Chervin version underestimated interannual variability of
temperature, but well reproduced relative variability of precipitation. Two
versions overestimated daily temperature variability, while the Dickinson
version accurately reproduced or underestimated it. The CO2-perturbed run of the
Washington version produced mixed results for changes in daily temperature
variability and tended to produce increased daily variability for precipitation.
"The Regional Hydrologic Impacts of Global Climate Change: The Role
of Climate Models," G. Thomas (Dept. Geog., Univ. British Columbia,
Vancouver, B.C., Can.), Global Planet. Change, 2(3-4), 343-368,
Aug. 1990. An extensive review which also outlines future research directions.
"Modeling of Trends in Measures of the Thermodynamic Variability of
the Terrestrial Climatic System," A.A. Arskiy (Inst. Atmos. Phys., USSR
Acad. Sci.), Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., 25(1), 1989. See
pp. 1-8, English edition, dated Aug. 1989.
A nonsteady-state energy-balance model, incorporating random forces, was
used for a linear-approximation analysis of trends in the variance of several
climate-related parameters as a function of trends in the temperature regime of
the terrestrial climatic system. Results were compared with empirical data. The
variance of the meridional gradient of the near-surface temperature is found to
increase in hemispheric warming related to CO2 increase.
"Bioclimatic Distribution of Vegetation for General Circulation
Model Studies," K.C. Prentice (NASA-Goddard, 2880 Broadway, New York NY
10025), J. Geophys. Res., 95(D8), 11,811-11,830, July 20, 1990.
Evaluates four global bioclimatic schemes which use climate to determine the
distribution of vegetation. Only about 40% of the observed land surface, mapped
as 31 vegetation types, could be replicated by applying these schemes to two
global climate data sets. After subdividing and regrouping the climates defined
by the schemes, 77% of the predicted vegetative landscape corresponds with the
distribution of present vegetation. This simple coupling of vegetation and
climate allows the distribution of simulated vegetation to adjust to present or
"Sensitivity of the Equilibrium Surface Temperature of a GCM to
Systematic Changes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide," R.J. Oglesby (Dept.
Geol., Yale Univ., POB 6666, New Haven CT 06511), B. Saltzman, Geophys. Res.
Lett., 17(8), 1089-1092, July 1990.
The equilibrium response of surface temperature to atmospheric CO2
concentration, for six values between 100 and 1000 ppm, is calculated from a
series of general circulation model experiments. The response is nonlinear,
showing greater sensitivity for the lower CO2 values.
"Potential Evapotranspiration and the Likelihood of Future Drought,"
D. Rind (NASA-Goddard, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10025), R. Goldberg et al.,
J. Geophys. Res., 95(D7), 9983-10,004, June 20, 1990.
Uses the Palmer drought severity index and a new sup-ply-demand index,
calculated from the Goddard GCM with transient and doubled CO2 climate changes,
to forecast future droughts. Both indices show increasing drought for the U.S.
during the next century, with effects becoming apparent in the 1990s. If
greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase rapidly, the model results suggest
that severe drought will occur about 50% of the time by the 2050s.
"Model Test of CCN-Cloud Albedo Climate Forcing," S.J. Ghan
(Lawrence Livermore Nat. Lab., L-264, Livermore CA 94550), K.E. Taylor, J.E.
Penner, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17(5), 607-610, Apr. 1990. There
appear to be no significant compensating changes in cloud properties that would
counteract the 1.7% global albedo increase resulting from a fourfold increase in
marine CCN concentration.
"Simple Model of Global Tropospheric Distribution of Chemically
Low-Active Gases from Industrial Sources," A.S. Kabanov (Taifun Sci. Indus.
Assoc.), Soviet Meteor. Hydrol., No. 3, 47-54, 1990. Eng. trans. of Meteor.
i Gidrol., No. 3, 59-67, 1989.
A simple stationary diffusion model incorporating transport by large-scale
atmospheric vortexes is proposed for gases whose lifetimes in the troposphere
are much greater than their characteristic mixing time, and verified using
observed global fields of CO2. In a sample calculation, the concentration of
carbonyl sulfide, the major source for the background sulfuric acid aerosol
layer in the stratosphere, varied markedly with latitude in the Northern
"Climate Change and the Middle Atmosphere. Part I: The Doubled CO2
Climate," D. Rind (NASA-Goddard, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10025), R.
Suozzo et al., J. Atmos. Sci., 47(4), 475-494, Feb. 15, 1990.
Using the GISS global climate/middle atmosphere model, found that doubled
CO2 produces warmer temperatures in the troposphere and generally cooler
temperatures in the stratosphere. The middle atmosphere dynamical differences
are on the order of 10% to 20% of the model values for the current climate, and
along with the calculated temperature differences of up to some 10° C, may
have an impact on the chemistry of the future atmosphere including that of
stratospheric ozone and basic atmospheric composition.
"The Representation of Continental Surface Processes in Atmospheric
Models," R. Avissar (Dept. Meteor., Cook Coll., Rutgers Univ., New
Brunswick, NJ 08903), M.M. Verstraete, Rev. Geophys., 28(1),
35-52, Feb. 1990.
An overview that focuses on issues rather than on details of implementation.
Discusses the role of surface processes as an essential coupling between the
surface and the atmosphere. In addressing parameterization of small-scale
processes in large-scale models, pays special attention to the cases of bare
ground and vegetated surfaces.
"Implications of Tropical Deforestation for Climate: A Comparison of
Model and Observational Descriptions of Surface Energy and Hydrological Balance,"
R.E. Dickinson (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc.
Lond., 324B(1223), 423-431, Aug. 31, 1989.
Quantitative estimates of the impacts of tropical deforestation on climate
can only be considered through use of models of climate that contain adequate
treatments of both land and atmospheric components. The major source of
discrepancy in models is found to be a large excess of simulated net surface
radiation and an excess rainfall interception loss, a consequence of the excess
"Climate Studies with a Coupled Atmosphere-Upper-Ocean-Ice Sheet
Model," T. Fichefet (Inst. d'Astronomie, Univ. Catholique de Louvain,
B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium), C. Tricot et al., ibid., 329A,
249-261, 1989. In response to a projected CO2 trend based on the scenario of
Wuebbles et al., a two-dimensional zonally averaged model shows the annual
hemispheric mean surface temperature to increase by 2° C between 1983 and
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations