February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1991
GENERAL INTEREST AND POLICY
Special Issue: "Climate Change--Policy Implications,"
Energy Policy, 19(2), Mar. 1991. Single copies, £26, from
Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Journal Fulfillment, 80 Montvale Ave., Stoneham MA
02180; or Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK.
"Editor's Introduction," J. Skea, 90-93. In this special issue, a
number of themes emerged: action will be required on a considerable scale if
stabilization or reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is to be achieved;
although energy industries will be hit hard, they have the capacity to respond
if prompted by vigorous government action; the main contribution in reducing
greenhouse gases will come from energy efficiency; market-based regulatory
instruments, such as carbon or fuel taxes, will be a vital component of policies
to reduce CO2 emissions; certain market signals will be supplemented by more
direct government intervention.
"The Diplomacy of Climate Change," R.E. Benedick (Senior Fellow,
World Wildlife Fund), 94-97.
"What Role Can Nuclear Power Play in Mitigating Global Warming?"
J. Pasztor (Stockholm Environ. Inst., 89 Broad St., Boston MA 02110), 98-109.
"Controlling the Greenhouse Effect--The Role of Renewables," F.
McGowan (Sci. Policy, Univ. Sussex, Falmer, E. Sussex BN1 9RF, UK), 110-118.
"Reducing CO2 Emissions--The West German Plan," E. Jochem
(Fraunhofer Inst., Breslauer Str. 48, D-7500 Karlsruhe 1, Ger.), 119-126.
"Improved Energy Efficiency in the Industrialized Countries--Past
Achievements, CO2 Emission Prospects," L. Schipper (Appl. Sci., 3125 Bldg.
90, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley CA 94720), 127-137.
"Market-Based Instruments for Reducing CO2 Emissions--the Case of UK
Manufacturing," A. Ingham (Dept. Econ., Univ. Southampton SO9 5NH, UK), A.
"The Role of Passenger Transport in CO2 Reduction Strategies," P.
Hughes (Energy/Environ. Res. Unit, Open Univ., Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7
6AA, UK), 149-160.
"Limit to Greenhouse Warming?" A.J. Heymsfield (NCAR, POB 3000,
Boulder CO 80307), L.M. Miloshevich, Nature, 351(6231), 14-15,
May 2, 1991. Discusses the article (immediately following) that proposes that
the greenhouse effect may be limited in the tropics by a feedback mechanism
involving sea surface temperature and cirrus ice clouds, concluding that it is
unclear what relevance these feedback mechanisms may have to the issue of
"Thermodynamic Regulation of Ocean Warming by Cirrus Clouds Deduced
from Observations of the 1987 El Niño," V. Ramanathan (Scripps Inst.
Oceanog., Univ. Calif., La Jolla CA 92093), W. Collins, ibid., 27-32.
Observations made during the 1987 El Niño show that in the upper
range of sea surface temperatures, the greenhouse effect increases with surface
temperature at a rate exceeding the rate at which radiation is being emitted
from the surface. Highly reflective cirrus clouds are produced which shield the
ocean from solar radiation. The sea surface temperatures may be limited to less
"Inadequacy of Effective CO2 as a Proxy in Simulating the Greenhouse
Effect of Other Radiatively Active Gases," W.-C. Wang, M.P. Dudek, S.-Z.
Liang, J.T. Kiehl (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), ibid., 350(6319),
573-577, Apr. 18, 1991.
Questions the use of CO2 effective concentration to simulate the combined
greenhouse effect of CO2 and CH4, N2O, CFC-11 and CFC-12 because of differences
in their radiative forcings, which models show can lead to differing climatic
effects. Thermal infrared opacities of each trace gas must be taken into
"The Global Carbon Cycle," W.M. Post (Environ. Sci. Div., Oak
Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge TN 37831), T.-H. Peng et al., Amer. Scientist,
78(4), 310-326, July-Aug. 1990.
Despite recent advances in understanding of the global carbon cycle, which
will determine the future levels of atmospheric CO2, all the fluxes of the cycle
over the period from 1800 to the present cannot be balanced. The most important
advances in carbon-cycle research since the 1977 American Scientist
review by C.F. Baes Jr. et al. are discussed, particularly with regard to the
role of oceanic and terrestrial systems in exchanging CO2 with the atmosphere. A
new global systems approach is described, which shows promise in resolving
"Consequences of Climatic Change for the Human Environment,"
M.J. Scott (Battelle Inst., Pacific Northwest Labs., POB 999, Richland WA
99352), N.J. Rosenberg et al., Clim. Res., 1, 63-79, Sep. 9,
1990. (Much of this material was published in Energy and Climate Change,
Lewis Pub. (Global Climate Change Digest, Books and Proceedings/General,
Provides a comprehensive overview of the state of science and outlines the
analyses required to make adaptive policy. Future effects research should be
targeted on regions rather than individual resources; it must explicitly account
for the timing of resource effects and technological changes; and it must
directly address uncertainty using new and more efficient computational
techniques as opposed to brute-force Monte-Carlo estimation.
"Ozone Depletion Due to Increasing Anthropogenic Trace Gas
Emissions: Role of Stratospheric Chemistry and Implications for Future Climate,"
L. Lal (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Indian Inst. Technol., 110016 New Delhi, India), T.
Holt, ibid., 85-95, Apr. 14, 1991.
Uses a one-dimensional coupled chemical-radiative-transport model to assess
the possible decline in stratospheric ozone and its effect on
troposphere-stratosphere temperature trends, from the pre-industrial era to the
present. The trace gas increase from 1850-1986 could have already contributed to
a 3-10% decline in stratospheric ozone, and an equilibrium surface warming of
0.7K. The surface warming expected by the middle of the next century is
projected to be 2K.
"Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change First Assessment
Report: Overview," Intl. Environ. Aff., 3(1), 64-84,
Winter 1991. Reproduces the IPCC report synopsis.
"The U.S. Global Change Research Program: An Overview and
Perspectives on the FY 1992 Program," R.W. Corell (Nat. Sci. Foundation,
1800 G St. NW, Washington DC 20550), Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72(5),
605-608, Apr. 1991.
Program funding will increase by 25% over the previous fiscal year and
several units within the Department of Defense and the Smithsonian Institution
have been added. Two topics to be emphasized are improved predictive capability
and understanding economic interactions.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations