February 28, 2007
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Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1991
EFFECTS ON FISHERIES
The following two special issues have been published by the American
Fisheries Society (5410 Grosvenor Ln., Bethesda MD 20814; 301-530-8502).
Fisheries, 15(6), Nov.-Dec. 1990.
"From Global to Regional Climate Change: Relative Knowns and Unknowns
about Global Warming," J.B. Smith (Off. Policy Anal., US EPA, 401 M St. SW,
Washington DC 20460), 2-6. A broad overview of the subject covering
greenhouse gas concentrations, the impacts on global climate, regional and
temporal climate changes.
"Climate Change and Marine Fisheries," R.C. Francis (Fisheries
Res. Inst., WH-10, Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), 7-9. To understand the
complex linkages involved, work in the following areas should be undertaken
immediately: prediction of oceanographic effects of climate change; the
structure and function of the marine food chain; important social aspects of
"Anticipated Effects of Climate Change on Freshwater Fishes and Their
Habitat," H.A. Regier (Inst. Environ. Studies, Univ. Toronto, Toronto, Ont.
M5S 1A1, Can.), J.D. Meisner, 10-15. Sketches an iterative assessment process
that uses water temperature, water quantity and water quality variables to link
the atmosphere to fishery resources, and incorporates information at different
scales (organism, species, population). Illustrates the process with recent work
done on the water temperature linkage. A Wild Salmonid Watch could provide a
framework for monitoring climate change and its effects on salmonids on a
"Anticipated Effects of Climate Change on Estuarine and Coastal
Fisheries," V.S. Kennedy (Horn Point Labs., Univ. Maryland, Cambridge MD
21613), 16-25. Estuarine and coastal systems could experience poleward retreat
of cold-tolerant species and range expansion of warm-tolerant species. Some
fisheries and aquaculture enterprises and communities would benefit, others
would suffer, with economic and population dislocation probably inevitable in
many parts of the world.
"Potential Effects of Global Warming on Native Fishes of the Southern
Great Plains and Southwest," W.J. Matthews (Biol. Sta., Univ. Oklahoma,
Kingston OK 73439), E.G. Zimmerman, 26-32. Fish in streams in this area may be
particularly vulnerable to extirpation or extinction due to global warming,
because some streams are sufficiently warm to be near the lethal thermal limits
for the fish and because the fish cannot migrate northward should warming occur.
Evidence suggests there is little likelihood of behavioral or genetic
"Global Climate Change: Policy Implications for Fisheries," H.
Gucinski (c/o ERL, US EPA, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis OR 97333), R.T. Lackey,
B.C. Spence, 33-38. Examines implications by considering changes extrapolated to
regional scales and selecting a few detailed case studies to illustrate
important points. Action requires establishing priorities for information needs,
determining appropriate temporal and spatial scales for modeling effects, and
accounting for interactive changes in physical and biological cycles. A policy
response can be derived when these results are integrated with social needs and
human population constraints.
"Does History Have a Future? Forecasting Climate Change Effects on
Fisheries by Analogy," M.H. Glantz (ESIG, NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO
80307), 39-44. Examines two events: the collapse of the Peruvian anchoveta
fishery (early 1970s) and the Anglo-Icelandic Cod Wars (1951-1977), for their
implications on how well society might be able to cope with the effects on
fisheries resources of possible regional climate changes that might be
associated with global warming.
Trans. Amer. Fisheries Soc., 119(2), Mar. 1990. Contains
the proceedings of the Symposium on Effects of Climate Change on Fish
(Sept. 14-15, 1988, Toronto, Ont., Can.), consisting of 17 technical articles
relating to such topics as air temperature and water supply, thermal structure
of lakes, dissolved oxygen contents of lakes, and potential effects on various
fish species and their food sources or predators. The introductory article by
the convenors of the conference (H.A. Regier, J.J. Magnuson, C.C. Coutant)
states that researchers, educators, entrepreneurs and managers should take the
issue of climate change seriously now. The following article on policy is also
part of the issue.
"Implications of Climate Change for Fisheries Management Policy,"
M.C. Healey (Westwater Res. Ctr., Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. V6T
1W5, Can.), 366-373. The typical, incremental, remedial policy adjustment of
governments and agencies is unsuited to some of the changes in fisheries
resource dynamics that might result from climatic change. An emphasis on
mitigation of the effects of change is also unlikely to be unsuccessful because
it focuses on the status quo and ignores opportunities that may be inherent in
the changes taking place. Bolder policies involving adaptation to new climatic
conditions and experimental probing of system behavior are more likely to be
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