February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 5, MAY 1991
EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE
"Changes in the Solar Forced Tides Caused by Stratospheric Ozone
Depletion," M.N. Ross (Space Sci. Lab., Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles CA
90009), R.L. Walterscheid, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18(3), 420-423,
Estimates the extent to which anthropogenic changes in the Earth's ozone
distribution have modified the thermal forcing and strength of the atmospheric
tides, finding, for example, that the tropical semidiurnal surface pressure
oscillation has decreased about 3% since the beginning of ozone depletion. Also
points out that relative changes in the amplitudes of the various tidal modes
contain information on the latitudinal distribution of ozone loss; middle
atmosphere ozone depletion affects the circulation of the upper atmosphere.
"Evidence for Long-Term Brightness Changes of Solar-Type Stars,"
S. Baliunas (Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys., 60 Garden St., Cambridge MA
02138), R. Jastrow, Nature, 348(6301), 520-523, Dec. 6, 1990.
To delimit the magnitude of solar luminosity variations on a timescale of
centuries, the magnetic behavior of a number of solar-type stars were examined
over several years. Indirect evidence shows that these stars undergo brightness
changes of more than the 0.1% observed during the last solar cycle, a result
that calls into question the assumption of a constant sun in calculations using
general circulation models for climate forecasting.
"A Stop-Start Ocean Conveyor," G.A. Jones (Woods Hole Oceanog.
Inst., Woods Hole MA 02543), ibid., 349(6308), 364-365, Jan. 31,
1991. Discusses a paper by Broecker et al. (Paleoceanog., 5,
469-477, 1990) which presents an updated view of the concept. Natural
oscillations in the salinity of the North Atlantic may alter the ocean's
large-scale circulation and its influence on climate. Although the
salt-oscillator model, as currently presented, requires ice cover on the
adjacent continents, it may be persisting now in weakened form and could be
implicated in the Little Ice Age.
"Reduction of Deepwater Formation in the Greenland Sea during the
1980s: Evidence from Tracer Data," P. Schlosser (Lamont-Doherty Geol.
Observ., Columbia Univ., Palisades NY 10964), G. Bönisch et al., Science,
251(4997), 1054-1056, Mar. 1, 1991. New long-term multitracer
observations show that Greenland Sea deepwater formation was greatly reduced
during the 1980s.
Comments and reply on "Integration of Space and in Situ
Observations to Study Global Climate Change," by Hasse, Bengtsson and
Shukla, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72(2), 242-245, Feb. 1991.
"Fertilizer and Climate Change," R.E. Turner (Dept. Marine Sci.,
Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge LA 70803), Nature, 349(6309),
469-470, Feb. 7, 1991. Fertilizers could be a source of recently deposited
nitrate in polar snow rather than the fossil fuel sources put forth in papers in
Nature by Mayewski et al.
"Global Nature of the Younger Dryas Cooling Event Inferred from
Oxygen Isotope Data from Sulu Sea Cores," J.R. Kudrass (Bundesanstalt
Geowissenschaften, Stilleweg 2, 3000 Hannover 51, Ger.), H. Erienkeuser et al.,
ibid., 349(6308), 406-409, Jan. 31, 1991. Data from benthic and
planktonic foramnifera found in radiocarbon-dated cores combined with other data
suggest that the Younger Dryas event was a global phenomenon caused by low
atmospheric CO2 concentrations.
"Satellite Observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds by the Solar
Backscattered Ultraviolet Spectral Radiometer: Evidence of a Solar Cycle
Dependence," G.E. Thomas (Lab. Atmos. Phys., Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO
80309), R.D. McPeters, E.J. Jensen, J. Geophys. Res., 96(D1),
927-939, Jan. 20, 1991. Polar mesospheric clouds are sensitive tracers of upper
atmospheric water vapor, can influence satellite measurements of O3, and could
indicate global change.
"Sulfur in Particles in Arctic Hazes Derived from Airborne in
Situ and Lidar Measurements," C.A. Brock (Dept. Atmos. Sci., AK-40,
Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), L.F. Radke, P.V. Hobbs, ibid., 95(D13),
22,369-22,387, Dec. 20, 1990. Arctic hazes are partly anthropogenic and may
alter the radiative budget of polar regions through their effects on snowpack
Special Issue: "Geosphere Fluctuations: Short Term
Instabilities in the Earth's System," S. Cloetingh, Ed. (Inst. Earth Sci.,
Free Univ. POB 7161, 1007 MC Amsterdam, Neth.), Global Planet. Change,
89(3), Dec. 1990.
Contains 14 papers presented at the Alfred Wegener conference on the topic
(Hamburg, Dec. 1988) as a contribution to the IGBP. They emphasize short-term
changes due to both natural and artificial processes. Topics include monitoring
and modeling global sea level changes, oceanic processes, the CO2 budget, the
role of volcanism, and past climatic crises as a key to the future.
"Response of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to Future Greenhouse Warming,"
P. Huybrechts (Geog. Inst., Free Univ. Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050, Brussels,
Belg.), J. Oerlemans, Clim. Dynamics, 5(2), 93-102, Dec.
Addresses the response of the Antarctic ice sheet and presents a tentative
projection of changes in global sea level for the next few hundred years, due to
changes in mass balance. Assumes that the surface air temperature rises to
4.2° C in 2000 AD and remains constant thereafter. The dynamic response of
the ice sheet (compared to the direct effect of the changes in surface mass
balance) becomes significant after 100 years. Ice-discharge across the
grounding-line increases and eventually leads to grounding-line retreat.
"Sea-Ice Anomalies Observed in the Greenland and Labrador Seas during
1901-1984 and Their Relation to an Interdecadal Arctic Climate Cycle," L.A.
Mysak (Ctr. Clim. Change Res., McGill Univ., 805 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal,
Que., H3A 2K6, Can.), D.K. Manak, R.F. Marsden, ibid., 111-133. Two
independent data sets indicate a 1-2° C interdecadal Arctic climate cycle
comparable to a 30-year warming trend recently predicted by transient CO2 GCM
"ISCCP Cloud Data Products," W.B. Rossow (NASA-Goddard, 2880
Broadway, New York NY 10025), Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72(1),
2-20, Jan. 1991. For the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project,
outlines data processing, main features of data products and early results, and
states how to obtain data from NOAA.
Special Issue: Clim. Change, 17(2-3), 143-146,
"Interdisciplinary Research and Retrospective Satellite Data Analysis
in Studying the Biosphere-Atmosphere Coupling," G. Asrar (NASA, Mail Code
SE, Washington DC 20546), R.E. Murphy. (See next entry for related studies.)
Introduces eight other papers devoted to the results of studies conducted
from 1985 to 1988 and sponsored by NASA as part of International Satellite Land
Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP). A combination of measurement and modeling
approaches have been used in deriving the biophysical, geophysical and
hydrological information content of ground-based, airborne and satellite data
sets. Three studies focused on the African continent and others examined the
semiarid and arid environments of the southwestern and midwestern U.S.
Special Issue: "Land Surface-Atmosphere Interactions,"
Agric. Forest Meteor., 52(1-2), Aug. 1990. Gives more results
from ISLSCP. The 10 papers--under the very broad category of modeling and
satellite data analysis--cover a wide range of topics and approaches relating to
quantitatively assessing the information content of satellite data in studying
the land surface and atmosphere interactions. Special attention was paid to
modeling physical phenomena to assess effects on the remotely sensed signal
measured. This approach was adopted to overcome limitations of empirical methods
and improve understanding of the underlying physical processes that contribute
to formation of the remotely sensed signal.
"A Review of Satellite Data Algorithms for Studies of the Land
Surface," P.J. Sellers (923, Biospheric Sci., NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD
20771), S.I. Rasool, H.-J. Bolle, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 71(10),
1429-1447, Oct. 1990. Gives a summary of and recommendations from the ISLSCP
Data Algorithms Workshop (Jan. 1987, Pasadena, Calif.).
"Are There Any Satisfactory Geologic Analogs for a Future Greenhouse
Warming?" T.J. Crowley (Appl. Res. Corp., 305 Arguello Dr., College Sta. TX
77840), J. Clim., 3(11), 1282-1292, Nov. 1990.
Reviews the past warm time periods most often cited as analogs for a future
greenhouse warming. Although paleoclimatic studies can contribute much valuable
insight into mechanisms of climate change, continued efforts to identify past,
warm periods as analogs rest upon often unstated assumptions that are probably
not valid. The future greenhouse warming may represent a unique climate
realization in the Earth's history. Future discussions of geologic analogs
should be restricted to study of processes operating in the climate system;
continued use of the term for past warm time periods should be abandoned.
"Role of Methane Clathrates in Past and Future Climates," G.J.
MacDonald (Mitre Corp., 7525 Colshire Dr., McLean VA 22102), Clim. Change,
16(3), 247-281, June 1990.
Clathrates are ice-like compounds in which methane and other gases are caged
by water molecules. This analysis indicates that with a warming of 2° C
per century, clathrates in permafrost would by the year 2080 release an amount
of carbon comparable to the annual production from fossil fuel combustion.
"Methane Hydrates and Global Climate," K.A. Kvenvolden (Geol.
Survey, Menlo Pk., Calif.), Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 2(3),
221-229, Sep. 1989. The process of permafrost warming and release of methane
from gas hydrates by global warming in the 21st century is probably small. The
positive feedback of this atmospheric methane on global climates is likely to be
"Basis for Integration of Conventional Observations of Cloud into
Global Nephanalyses," A. Henderson-Sellers (Sch. Earth Sci., Macquarie
Univ., N. Ryde, N.S.W. 2109, Australia), K. McGuffie, J. Atmos. Chem.,
11, 1-25, 1990. A new basis for the relationship between the (vertical)
earthview of cloud among the (whole dome) sky cover of cloud amount has been
sought by analyzing over 4500 all-sky camera photographs.
"Baseline Atmospheric Condensation Nuclei at Cape Grim 1977-1987,"
J.L. Gras (CSIRO, Atmos. Res., Pvt. Bag 1, Mordialloc, Victoria 3195,
Australia), ibid., 89-106. Discusses the meaning of "baseline"
as applied to measurements of condensation nuclei at atmospheric monitoring
sites such as Cape Grim, and advocates the idea that a baseline exists only in a
"Quaternary Deepwater Paleoceanography," E.A. Boyle (Dept. Earth
Sci., Rm. E34-258, MIT, Cambridge MA 02139), Science, 249(4971),
863-870, Aug. 24, 1990.
Reviews work from the past decade that explored changes in the circulation
of the deep ocean during the interglacial cycles of the Earth's recent history.
Deep-ocean sediments contain extensive records of climate history, including
climate transitions that compare in magnitude with typical
doubled-atmospheric-CO2 scenarios. Deepwater chemistry and circulation changes
may control the variability in atmospheric CO2 levels that have been documented
from studies of air bubbles in polar ice cores.
"A Role for Soil Microbes in Moderating the Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse
Effect?" S.B. Idso (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., Phoenix, Ariz.), Soil
Sci., 149(3), 179-180, Mar. 1990. Urges more research into the
microbial aspects of dimethyl sulfide production on land. This is relevant to
the intertwined phenomena of global SO2 pollution, atmospheric CO2
fertilization, and modulation of the Earth's radiation balance by clouds.
"Rain, Rainclouds and Climate," K.A. Browning, Quart. J.
Roy. Meteor. Soc., 116(495), 1025-1051, June 1990. A review
stressing the problem of observing rain globally and discussing raincloud
processes that are particularly important for climate.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations