February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 11, NOVEMBER 1991
"The Carbon Cycle," J. Scurlock, D. Hall, New
Scientist--Inside Science, No. 51, 4 pp., Nov. 2, 1991.
A readable summary of sources and sinks of carbon, carbon turnover, carbon
in the atmosphere (greenhouse effect), methane (importance as a greenhouse gas),
carbon budgeting (preparing for the future). Reviews a variety of methods to
combat global warming (carbon taxes, bioreactors, energy efficiency, sustainable
"People Who Live in Green Houses...," M. Stetson, World
Watch, pp. 22-30, Sep.-Oct. 1991.
Third World governments see rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions as a
necessary evil if they are to raise living standards. One solution for both
First and Third Worlds is improved efficiency in various sectors. Brazil is one
government where an energy efficiency program has already saved $1 billion over
that needed for new construction.
"Here Comes the Sun," C. Flavin, N. Lenssen, ibid., pp.
10-18. Although technology exists today to produce most of our energy from the
sun, wind and heat from the Earth, tapping these sources will require a vigorous
"Tales from Ice Time," R. Monastersky, Sci. News, pp.
168-172, Sep. 14, 1991.
Describes GISP 2 (the U.S.-sponsored Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2) and GRIP
(the European Greenland Ice Core Project), which are drilling 3,000 meters
through the ice sheet. The ice cores will provide a 200,000-year record, and
will surpass by 40,000 years the world's longest ice record. The Greenland
record will provide the first in-depth look at the climatic optimum and other
events that occurred during the Holocene epoch, the period since the last ice
"Trees by the Billions: A Blueprint for Cooling," N. Myers,
Intl. Wildlife, pp. 12-15, Sep.-Oct. 1991.
The great bulk of forests are likely to disappear unless conservation is
greatly expanded. Tree planting on a vast scale would absorb enough carbon to
give the world several decades in which to devise better ways to meet energy
needs, at a cost less than the amount the U.S. would need just to protect its
East Coast from sea level rise.
"Poisoned Plumes," S. Aftergood, New Scientist, pp.
34-38, Sep. 7, 1991.
Concern about depletion of the ozone layer has stimulated renewed interest
in the role played by chlorine-containing exhaust from solid rocket boosters.
The National Research Council has called for NASA to move toward use of liquid
propellants, and the USSR has pledged to use liquid propellants in rockets used
between the altitudes of 12 and 20 km.
"Why Can't We Balance the Globe's Carbon Budget?" A.M. Gillis,
BioScience, pp. 442-447, July-Aug. 1991.
Researchers cannot balance the world's carbon budget because they cannot
quantify how much human-generated CO2 is taken up by the oceans. The Joint
Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) measured algal blooms in the North Atlantic to
determine their importance in removing CO2. Data from 1990 indicated that as CO2
was taken up by the plankton, it was drawn down from the atmosphere, but the
flux behavior was not uniform throughout the area. Other findings are also
"As the Ozone Thins, the Plot Thickens," F. Lyman, Amicus
Journal, 20-28, 30, Summer 1991. (Natural Resour. Defense Council, 40 W.
20th St., New York NY 10011)
Summarizes recent history and scientific findings. Although CFC use is
rapidly being cut back, the world will not feel the full impact of ozone
depletion for decades. Lessons from this issue should be applied to the global
"Back to the Future: Detroit's Giving Electric Cars a Second Chance,"
T. Moore, Coal Voice, pp. 19-22, Sep.-Oct. 1991. Originally appeared in
EPRI Journal, Apr.-May 1991.
American automobile makers are making a major commitment to bring electric
vehicles (EVs) into commercial production before 2000. CO2 emissions from EV use
could be half that from a comparable conventional vehicle.
"Compensating Losers when Cost-Effective Environmental Policies are
Adopted," D. Burtraw, Resources, 1-5, Summer 1991. (Resour. for the
Future, 1616 P St. NW, Washington DC 20036)
In the cases of global warming and ozone depletion, a cost-effective
approach might require large transfers of resources from industrialized to less
developed countries. However, this could serve paternalistic self-interest of
industrialized countries. Incentive-based approaches could also be
"Climate Change and Human Health," G. Sanderson, Our Planet,
3(3), 16-18, 1991. (U.N. Environ. Prog., POB 30552, Nairobi, Kenya).
Climate change resulting from the greenhouse effect will disrupt food and
freshwater supplies, displace human populations, and change disease patterns
dangerously and unpredictably. Populations most vulnerable are in developing
countries and lower income groups. Ozone depletion poses a threat through
increased risk of skin cancer, cataracts, and lowered immunity.
"Energy Effectiveness: A Brake on Climate Change," J.M. Veigel,
Publ. Util. Fortnightly, 19-21, Mar. 1, 1991.
The concepts energy conservation and energy efficiency do not reflect
society's broader energy needs. However, these are both components of energy
effectiveness, which measures success relative to the ends satisfied by
energy services. Energy effectiveness encompasses all issues that affect and are
affected by energy--including behavior, environment and economic externalities.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations