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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 11, NOVEMBER 1991

PERIODICALS...
ARTICLES


Item #d91nov65

"The Carbon Cycle," J. Scurlock, D. Hall, New Scientist--Inside Science, No. 51, 4 pp., Nov. 2, 1991.

A readable summary of sources and sinks of carbon, carbon turnover, carbon in the atmosphere (greenhouse effect), methane (importance as a greenhouse gas), carbon budgeting (preparing for the future). Reviews a variety of methods to combat global warming (carbon taxes, bioreactors, energy efficiency, sustainable biomass fuels).


Item #d91nov66

"People Who Live in Green Houses...," M. Stetson, World Watch, pp. 22-30, Sep.-Oct. 1991.

Third World governments see rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions as a necessary evil if they are to raise living standards. One solution for both First and Third Worlds is improved efficiency in various sectors. Brazil is one government where an energy efficiency program has already saved $1 billion over that needed for new construction.


Item #d91nov67

"Here Comes the Sun," C. Flavin, N. Lenssen, ibid., pp. 10-18. Although technology exists today to produce most of our energy from the sun, wind and heat from the Earth, tapping these sources will require a vigorous public commitment.


Item #d91nov68

"Tales from Ice Time," R. Monastersky, Sci. News, pp. 168-172, Sep. 14, 1991.

Describes GISP 2 (the U.S.-sponsored Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2) and GRIP (the European Greenland Ice Core Project), which are drilling 3,000 meters through the ice sheet. The ice cores will provide a 200,000-year record, and will surpass by 40,000 years the world's longest ice record. The Greenland record will provide the first in-depth look at the climatic optimum and other events that occurred during the Holocene epoch, the period since the last ice age.


Item #d91nov69

"Trees by the Billions: A Blueprint for Cooling," N. Myers, Intl. Wildlife, pp. 12-15, Sep.-Oct. 1991.

The great bulk of forests are likely to disappear unless conservation is greatly expanded. Tree planting on a vast scale would absorb enough carbon to give the world several decades in which to devise better ways to meet energy needs, at a cost less than the amount the U.S. would need just to protect its East Coast from sea level rise.


Item #d91nov70

"Poisoned Plumes," S. Aftergood, New Scientist, pp. 34-38, Sep. 7, 1991.

Concern about depletion of the ozone layer has stimulated renewed interest in the role played by chlorine-containing exhaust from solid rocket boosters. The National Research Council has called for NASA to move toward use of liquid propellants, and the USSR has pledged to use liquid propellants in rockets used between the altitudes of 12 and 20 km.


Item #d91nov71

"Why Can't We Balance the Globe's Carbon Budget?" A.M. Gillis, BioScience, pp. 442-447, July-Aug. 1991.

Researchers cannot balance the world's carbon budget because they cannot quantify how much human-generated CO2 is taken up by the oceans. The Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) measured algal blooms in the North Atlantic to determine their importance in removing CO2. Data from 1990 indicated that as CO2 was taken up by the plankton, it was drawn down from the atmosphere, but the flux behavior was not uniform throughout the area. Other findings are also discussed.


Item #d91nov72

"As the Ozone Thins, the Plot Thickens," F. Lyman, Amicus Journal, 20-28, 30, Summer 1991. (Natural Resour. Defense Council, 40 W. 20th St., New York NY 10011)

Summarizes recent history and scientific findings. Although CFC use is rapidly being cut back, the world will not feel the full impact of ozone depletion for decades. Lessons from this issue should be applied to the global warming debate.


Item #d91nov73

"Back to the Future: Detroit's Giving Electric Cars a Second Chance," T. Moore, Coal Voice, pp. 19-22, Sep.-Oct. 1991. Originally appeared in EPRI Journal, Apr.-May 1991.

American automobile makers are making a major commitment to bring electric vehicles (EVs) into commercial production before 2000. CO2 emissions from EV use could be half that from a comparable conventional vehicle.


Item #d91nov74

"Compensating Losers when Cost-Effective Environmental Policies are Adopted," D. Burtraw, Resources, 1-5, Summer 1991. (Resour. for the Future, 1616 P St. NW, Washington DC 20036)

In the cases of global warming and ozone depletion, a cost-effective approach might require large transfers of resources from industrialized to less developed countries. However, this could serve paternalistic self-interest of industrialized countries. Incentive-based approaches could also be cost-effective.


Item #d91nov75

"Climate Change and Human Health," G. Sanderson, Our Planet, 3(3), 16-18, 1991. (U.N. Environ. Prog., POB 30552, Nairobi, Kenya).

Climate change resulting from the greenhouse effect will disrupt food and freshwater supplies, displace human populations, and change disease patterns dangerously and unpredictably. Populations most vulnerable are in developing countries and lower income groups. Ozone depletion poses a threat through increased risk of skin cancer, cataracts, and lowered immunity.


Item #d91nov76

"Energy Effectiveness: A Brake on Climate Change," J.M. Veigel, Publ. Util. Fortnightly, 19-21, Mar. 1, 1991.

The concepts energy conservation and energy efficiency do not reflect society's broader energy needs. However, these are both components of energy effectiveness, which measures success relative to the ends satisfied by energy services. Energy effectiveness encompasses all issues that affect and are affected by energy--including behavior, environment and economic externalities.

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