February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 10, OCTOBER 1991
Seven articles from: J. Geophys. Res., 96(7), July 20,
"Two-Dimensional Model Calculation of Fluorine-Containing Reservoir
Species in the Stratosphere," J.A. Kaye (NASA-Goddard, Code 916, Greenbelt
MD 20771), A.R. Douglass et al., 12,865-12,881. Calculations agreed with
observed vertical profiles of HF and CF2O; total column HF was underestimated,
probably due to small inaccuracies in the treatment of lower stratospheric
photolysis of CFCs.
"A Test of Odd-Oxygen Photochemistry Using Spacelab 3 Atmospheric Trace
Molecule Spectroscopy Observations," M. Allen (Jet Propulsion Lab., Code
183-601, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), M.L. Delitsky, 12,883-12,891.
The ozone profile calculated with a 1-D, time-dependent photochemical model was
as much as 15% less than observed at 36 km, and 70% less at 76 km.
"Total Ozone from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder during the
Formation of the 1987 Ozone Hole," L. Lefèvre (Météo-France,
Ctr. Nat. Recherches Météorol., 42 Ave. Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse
Cedex, France), D. Cariolle et al., 12,893-12,911. Total ozone maps derived from
the TOVS/HIRS2 instrument using an improved retrieval algorithm agreed with TOMS
data at middle latitudes, but differences were found in early September in high
latitudes. However, results show that TOVS measurements could play an important
role in ozone layer monitoring, especially in wintertime polar regions where UV
techniques are hindered.
"Validation of SAGE II NO2 Measurements," D.M. Cunnold (Sch. Earth
Sci., Georgia Inst. Technol., Atlanta GA 30332), J.M. Zawodny et al.,
12,913-12,925. Compared against two sets of balloon profiles and ATMOS
measurements, SAGE II measurements show agreement within about 10% over
altitudes of 23 to 37 km in middle latitudes.
"On the Explicit Versus Family Solution of the Fully Diurnal
Photochemical Equations of the Stratosphere," J. Austin (U.K. Meteor. Off.,
London Rd., Bracknell, Berkshire, RG12 2SZ, UK), 12,941-12,974. A hierarchy of
models is developed to test the accuracy of the family solution of the
equations; the strengths and weaknesses of some models described in the
literature are evaluated.
"Polar Stratospheric Cloud Observations over the Ant-arctic Continent
at Dumont d'Urville," L. Stefanutti (IROE-CNR, Via Panciatichi 64, 50127
Firenze, Italy), M. Morandi et al., 12,975-12,987. Continuous monitoring by
backscattering lidar allowed discrimination between types Ia, Ib and II polar
stratospheric clouds, and revealed their time evolution. Observations of
decreasing altitude of the cloud layers over a few hours imply a sedimentation
velocity consistent with large particles.
Two articles from: Nature, 352(6331), July 11, 1991.
"Role of Heterogeneous Conversion of N2O5 on Sulphate Aerosols in
Global Ozone Losses," J.M. Rodriguez (Atmos. Environ. Res. Inc., Cambridge
MA 02139), M.K.W. Ko, N.D. Sze, 134-137. Calculations of decadal ozone trends at
both high and middle latitudes, using the measured rates for this heterogeneous
reaction, agree much more closely with observations than do calculations based
on gas-phase chemistry alone.
"Importance of Energetic Solar Protons in Ozone Depletion," J.A.E.
Stephenson (Space Phys. Res. Inst., Univ. Natal, Durban 4001, S. Africa), M.W.J.
Scourfield, 137-139. Satellite observations showed that Cl-catalyzed ozone
depletion takes place over a much larger area than depletion by solar protons,
but their influence on ozone concentrations should not be ignored.
"Theoretical Interpretation of N2O5 Measurements," R. Toumi
(Dept. Chem., Univ. Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), J.A. Pyle et al., Geophys.
Res. Lett., 18(7), 1213-1216, July 1991. Application of simple
equations describing the nighttime behavior of NO2 and N2O5 show that previous
measurements are self consistent, confirming our understanding of nighttime NO2
conversion to N2O5.
Four articles from: Geophys. Res. Lett., 18(6), June 1991.
"Measurement of the Stratospheric Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration
Profile Using Far Infrared Thermal Emission Spectroscopy," K.V. Chance
(Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys., 60 Garden St., Cambridge MA 02138), D.G.
Johnson et al., 1003-1006. Reports on the first unequivocal measurement of H2O2
in the stratosphere obtained from a balloon platform.
"Reactions on Sulphuric Acid Aerosol and on Polar Stratospheric Clouds
in the Antarctic Stratosphere," E.W. Wolff (Brit. Antarctic Survey,
Maddingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), R. Mulvaney, 1007-1010. Uses recent data
to explore the possibly important role of sulfuric acid aerosol in providing a
surface for the initial conversion of Cl to its active form by heterogeneous
"Simultaneous Balloonborne Measurements of Stratospheric Water Vapor
and Ozone in the Polar Regions," D.J. Hofmann (Climate Monitoring Lab.,
NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), S.J. Oltmans, T. Deshler, 1011-1014. In
contrast to the Antarctic, results from the Arctic showed little stratospheric
dehydration and an absence of significant inhomogeneity.
"Response of the Middle Atmosphere to the Solar Proton Events of
August-December, 1989," G.C. Reid (Aeronomy Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway,
Boulder CO 80303), S. Solomon, R.R. Garcia, 1019-1022. A 2-D model of the
chemistry and dynamics of the middle atmosphere has been used to calculate the
production and subsequent fate of NOy. Peak ozone depletions of about 20% are
calculated near 40 km in late October 1989.
Four articles from: J. Geophys. Res., 96(D6), June 20,
"Review and Revision of Measurements of Stratospheric N2O5," H.K.
Roscoe (Brit. Antarctic Survey, Maddingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK),
10,879-10,884. The earliest stratospheric measurement is significantly revised
and all measured profiles are tabulated using a standard value for band
"Nighttime Reactive Nitrogen Measurements from Stratospheric Infrared
Thermal Emission Observations," M.M. Abbas (Space Sci. Lab., NASA-Marshall,
Code ES55, Huntsville AL 35812), V.G. Kunde et al., 10,885-10,897. Presents
simultaneously measured vertical distributions of O3, H2O, N2O, NO2, N2O5, HNO3
and ClONO2, which permit the first direct determination of the nighttime total
reactive nitrogen concentrations, and partitioning of the important elements of
the NOx family.
"Model Simulation of Chemical Depletion of Arctic Ozone during the
Winter of 1989," J.C. McConnell (Dept. Earth Sci., York Univ., N. York,
Ont. M3J 1P3, Can.), W.F.J. Evans, E.M.J. Templeton, 10,923-10,930. A simple
chemical model was applied to analyze the ozone depletion trend shown by a
series of ozonesonde profiles taken in project CANOZE.
"Ozone Trend in the Northern Hemisphere: A Numerical Study," G.
Pitari (Dept. Fisica, Univ. degli Studi, 67010 Coppito, L'Aquila, Italy), G.
Visconti, 10,931-10,940. A 2-D model using diabatic circulation and complete
chemistry shows that increasing stratospheric chlorine possibly explains
observed ozone depletion, and polar stratospheric clouds influence the seasonal
behavior of the ozone trend.
Two articles from: J. Atmos. Chem., 12(4), May 1991.
"Denitrification through PSC Formation: A 1-D Model Incorporating
Temperature Oscillations," K. Drdla (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. California,
Los Angeles CA 90024), R.P. Turco, 319-366. A model investigation of the
interactions between Type I and Type II PSCs shows that the process of
denitrification, especially the proportion removed by Type I PSCs, is highly
"Extremely Low Temperatures in the Stratosphere and Very Low Total
Ozone Amount above Northern and Central Europe during Winter 1989," K. Wege
(Meteor. Observ., Hohenpeissenberg, Ger.), 381-390. Although dynamic influences
probably caused the observations of low ozone at Hohenpeissenberg, coincident
SAGE II observations of polar stratospheric clouds over Europe suggest a
contribution by heterogeneous chemistry.
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