February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1991
EFFECTS OF WARMING, CO2 AND UV
"Effects of Snowpack on Timing and Abundance of Flowering in Delphinium
nelsonii (Ranunculaceae): Implications for Climate Change," D.W. Inouye
(Dept. Zool., Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), A.D. McGuire, Amer. J.
Bot., 78(7), 997-1001, July 1991.
Examined the effects of variation in annual snowfall in dry subalpine
meadows of the Colorado Rocky Mountains on the timing and abundance of
flowering. If climate change results in decreased mean annual snowfall, seed
production will probably be adversely affected. Decreased snowfall also may
reduce the number and relative proportions of species in the herbaceous flora in
the study area.
Clim. Change, 18(4), June 1991.
"Modeling Interactive Effects of Climate Change, Air Pollution and Fire
on a California Shrubland," G.P. Malanson (Dept. Geog., Univ. Iowa, Iowa
City IA 52242), W.E. Westman, 363-376. A computer model simulated the separate
and combined effects of altered precipitation, temperature, ambient ozone
levels, and fuel loads and fire intensity on species composition. Changes
attributed to climate variation alone were markedly accentuated when the
indirect effects of climate change on fire intensity and ozone pollution were
considered. Inclusion of secondary interactions and species competition will be
important in realistically predicting vegetation change.
"Implications of CO2 Global Warming on Great Lakes Ice Cover,"
R.A. Assel (Great Lakes Environ. Res. Lab., NOAA, 2205 Commonwealth Blvd., Ann
Arbor MI 48105), 377-395. Statistical ice cover models, used to project daily
mean basin ice cover and annual ice cover duration for doubled CO2 scenarios
produced by three general circulation models, predicted substantial ice cover
reductions to varying degrees. Potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts
include year-round navigation, change in abundance of some fish species,
discontinuation or reduction of winter recreational activities and increased
winter lake evaporation.
"Influence of the Greenhouse Effect on Yields of Wheat, Soybean and
Corn in the United States for Different Energy Scenarios," K. Okamoto
(Dept. Phys., Tokyo Gakugei Univ., Koganei, Tokyo, Japan 184), T. Ogiwara et
al., 397-424. Considers the simultaneous influences of increased photosynthesis
from elevated CO2, and drought due to temperature rise, in the central part of
the U.S. in summer. Results show that unlimited CO2 increase is not desirable
for these crops, even if positive effects of CO2 are accounted for.
"Nutrient Dilution by Starch in CO2-Enriched Chrysanthemum,"
J.S. Kuehny, M.M. Peet (Dept. Hort. Sci., Box 7609, North Carolina State Univ.,
Raleigh NC 27695) et al., J. Exper. Bot., 42(239), 711-716, June
To determine the importance of differential starch accumulation in
calculating nutrient concentrations on a dry weight basis, leaf nutrient and
starch concentrations were measured in winter and spring. On a dry weight basis,
foliar concentrations of most nutrients were lower in both seasons as a result
of elevated CO2 and irradiance levels, and total dry weights were higher.
Percent starch was greater at the high CO2 levels in both seasons.
"Effects of Two and a Half Years of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on the
Root Density Distribution of Three-Year-Old Sour Orange Trees," S.B. Idso
(Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Broadway, Phoenix AZ 85040), B.A. Kimball, Agric.
For. Meteor., 55(3-4), 345-349, June 1991.
Extensive soil coring of the root zones of trees grown in open-top chambers
indicated that growth under an extra 300 cm3 CO2 m-3 of air produced a fine root
biomass enhancement of 175%, of the same order of magnitude as the authors'
previously reported results for net photosynthesis and trunk and branch volumes.
"Net Photosynthesis of Sour Orange Trees Maintained in Atmospheres of
Ambient and Elevated CO2 Concentration," S.B. Idso (addr. immed. above),
B.A. Kimball, S.G. Allen, ibid., 54(1), 95-101, Mar. 30, 1991.
Data from an inventory of all above-ground plant parts at the conclusion of
two full years' growth under an extra 300 cm3 CO2 m-3 of air have revealed that
the net effect of the CO2-enriched air was to more than double the normal
production of biomass. Net photosynthesis measurements suggest that the primary
impetus for this large growth response was an equivalent enhancement of the net
photosynthetic rates of the CO2-enriched trees.
"Climatic Change and Future Agroclimatic Potential in Europe,"
T.R. Carter (Finnish Meteor. Inst., POB 503, SF-00101 Helsinki, Finland), M.L.
Parry, J.H. Porter, Intl. J. Clim., 11(3), 251-269, Apr. 1991.
Employed an agroclimatic index to relate temperature patterns to the
cultivable limits of grain maize (Zea mays). A mean annual temperature
increase of only 1° C would open up large areas of southern England, the
Low Countries, eastern Denmark, northern Germany and northern Poland to
potential maize cultivation. An increase of 4° C would move the limit into
central Fennoscandia and northern Russia. Such shifts would offer new
opportunities for farmers in northern Europe. However, to successfully exploit
these shifts should they occur rapidly, immediate attention should be directed
toward more detailed assessments of crop potential in currently marginal
"Sagebrush Carbon Allocation Patterns and Grasshopper Nutrition: The
Influence of CO2 Enrichment and Soil Mineral Limitation," R.H. Johnson,
D.E. Lincoln (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. S. Carolina, Columbia SC 29208), Oecologia,
87(1), 127-134, 1991.
Seedlings of Artemesia tridentata were grown under CO2
concentrations of 350 and 650 micro L L-1 and two levels of soil nutrition. In
the high nutrient treatment, increasing CO2 led to a doubling of shoot mass,
whereas nutrient limitation completely constrained the response to elevated CO2.
Grasshopper consumption was greater on host leaves grown under CO2 enrichment
but was reduced on leaves grown under low nutrient availability.
"Growth and Photosynthetic Response of Nine Tropical Species with
Long-Term Exposure to Elevated Carbon Dioxide," L.H. Ziska (Dept. Bot.,
Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), K.P. Hogan et al., ibid., 83(3),
Species selected for study varied in growth and carbon metabolism. Doubled
CO2 concentration resulted in increased photosynthesis and water use
efficiencies for all species with C3 metabolism. Increased total plant dry
weights were also noted for most species, but not for a C4 grass. Elevated CO2
may have significant effects on photosynthesis and productivity in a wide
variety of tropical species, and these may be related to physiological
adaptation to increased CO2.
New Phytol., 117(4), Apr. 1991.
"Leaf Area Composition and Nutrient Interactions in CO2-Enriched
Seedlings of Yellow Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.)," R.J.
Norby (Environ. Sci. Div., Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., POB 2008, Oak Ridge TN 37831),
E.G. O'Neill, 515-528. Experiments in controlled environment chambers were used
to test two hypothesis, both of which were subsequently rejected: (1) CO2
enrichment would enhance growth of yellow poplar seedlings both through
accelerated leaf area production and through higher rates of carbon assimilation
per unit leaf area; and (2) growth enhancement of yellow poplar by CO2
enrichment would be reduced by nutrient limitations. Results demonstrate the
importance of feedbacks and interactions between resources in shaping a plant's
response to CO2.
"Atmospheric Pollution and the Sensitivity of Stomata on Barley Leaves
to Abscisic Acid and Carbon Dioxide," C.J. Atkinson (Inst. Environ. Sci.,
Univ. Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK), P.A. Wookey, T.A. Mansfield, 535-541.
Stomata of leaves which had been fumigated with SO2 + NO2 behaved in a similar
manner to non-fumigated leaves, both showing closure in elevated CO2.
"Climatic Change and the British Butterfly Fauna: Opportunities and
Constraints," R.L.H. Dennis, T.G. Shreeve (Sch. Biol. Sci., Oxford
Polytech., Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK), Biol. Conserv., 55(1),
Discusses a scheme for assessing the vulnerability of species on their host
plant and habitat associations. Climatic warming may reduce the regional
contrasts in species diversity and population status between northern and
southern Britain, as range expansions and upland colonization are predicted for
the north, and reduced populations and population extinctions for the south.
However, warming offers potentials for new residents and migrants in southern
"Forest Responses to Tropospheric Ozone and Global Climate Change: An
Analysis," R.N. Kickert, S.V. Krupa (Dept. Plant Pathol., Univ. Minnesota,
1991 Buford Circ., St. Paul MN 55108), Environ. Pollut., 68(1-2),
29-65, 1990. Reviews what we know, what we need to know, and what we need to do
to further our understanding of the relationships between tropospheric ozone,
global climate change (changes in temperature and precipitation), and forest
"Interaction of Elevated Ultraviolet-B Radiation and CO2 on
Productivity and Photosynthetic Characteristics in Wheat, Rice and Soybean,"
A.H. Teramura (Dept. Bot., Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), J.H. Sullivan,
L.H. Ziska, Plant Physiol., 94(2), 470-475, Oct. 1990.
The crops were subjected to increased CO2, increased UV-B (corresponding to
10% equatorial ozone depletion), or both. Increased UV-B nullified the increased
seed yields and total biomass from elevated CO2 alone in wheat and rice, while
it maintained or amplified such increases for soybean. Available data may not
adequately characterize the potential effect of future, simultaneous changes in
CO2 concentration and UV-B radiation.
"The Potential Effects of Global Warming on the Primary Productivity
of a Subalpine Lake," E.R. Byron (CH2M Hill, 3840 Rosin Ct., S. 110,
Sacramento CA 95834), C.R. Goldman, Water Resour. Bull., 26(6),
983-989, Dec. 1990.
Annual algal productivity was modeled empirically for a mountain lake in
northern California using 25 years of limnological data and related to
accumulated snow depth and precipitation. The model predicted increased algal
productivity under GCM scenarios of doubled atmospheric CO2, primarily through a
lengthened growing season.
Comment and reply on: "Hydrologic Effects of Climate Change in the
Delaware River Basin," ibid., 26(5), 831-834, Oct. 1990.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations