February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 8, AUGUST 1992
EMISSIONS AND THEIR CONTROL
"Sequestration of CO2 in the Deep Ocean by Shallow Water Injection,"
P.M. Haugan (Nansen Environ. Ctr., E. Griegs vei 3A, N-5037 Solheimsvik,
Norway), H. Drange, Nature, 357(6376), 318-320, May 28, 1992.
(See Res. News, this issue--Aug. 1992.) While previous studies of the
possible injection of CO2 into the ocean emphasized the need to inject the gas
at great depths, this paper shows that the increased water density resulting
from CO2 dissolution may be sufficient to transport the dissolved gas to lower
depths even for shallow injection (upper 200-400 m). The coast of Norway is an
example of a region where this factor could be exploited. Effects on marine life
downstream need evaluation. (See related correspondence, ibid., pp.
547-548, June 18.)
"Methane from Ruminants in Relation to Global Warming," A. Moss
(ADAS Feed Eval. Unit, Stratford upon Avon, Warwickshire CV37 9RQ, UK), Chem.
& Indus., 334-336, May 4, 1992.
An overview with 25 references on research results concerning factors that
determine emissions and strategies for reducing them by altering animal feed
quality and feed management.
Two items from Ambio, 21(2), Apr. 1992:
"Solar-Generated Building Material from Seawater as a Sink for Carbon,"
W.H. Hilbertz (Mozartstr. 12, D-493 Detmold, Ger.), 126-129.
Carbon-storing limestone can be precipitated from sea water using
electricity from renewable sources. Existing resources for the operation of the
mineral accretion process are surveyed, and similarities in biogenic calcium
carbonate deposition are discussed. Proposes precipitated limestone and material
consisting of artificial limestone and hard coral skeletons as building
materials and as a sink for carbon.
Discussion on "Sources and Sinks of Greenhouse Gases in Sweden: A Case
Study," pp. 191-192.
"Growing Halophytes to Remove Carbon from the Atmosphere," E.P.
Glenn (Environ. Res. Lab., Tucson, Ariz.), C.N. Hodges et al., Environment,
34(3), 40-43, Apr. 1992.
An overview of recent work (including the authors' field experiments)
examining the feasibility of growing halophytes (wild, salt-tolerant plants) to
sequester carbon on desert lands.
"NOx and SOx Emissions from Fossil Fuels: A Global Distribution,"
J. Dignon (Livermore Lab., Univ. California, Livermore CA 94550), Atmos.
Environ., 26A(6), 1157-1163, 1992.
Presents a database (available from the author) of annual emissions at a
1° resolution, based on fuel consumption for individual countries and
distributed according to human population within each country.
"Aluminum and Global Warming," D. Abrahamson (Humphrey Inst.
Public Affairs, Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455), Nature, 356(6369),
484, Apr. 9, 1992. Letter pointing out that the IPCC has overlooked two
important greenhouse gases, CF4 and C2F6, generated by primary aluminum
"Sources of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide," O. Badr (Dept. Appl.
Energy, Cranfield Inst. Tech., Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK), S.D. Probert, Appl.
Energy, 42(3), 129-176, 1992.
Identifies and discusses the individual sources of N2O and estimates of
corresponding emission rates. The accuracy of these estimates is poor, and more
field measurements are needed.
"SF6 and the Atmosphere," L. Niemeyer (ABB Corp. Res., Baden,
Switz.), F.Y. Chu, IEEE Trans. on Elec. Insulation, 27(1),
184-187, Feb. 1992. Shows that the contribution of this gas (predominantly used
for electrical insulation and switching) to global warming and ozone depletion
"Global Emissions of Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxides in Fossil Fuel
Combustion 1970-1986," S. Hameed (Inst. Terr. Plan. Atmos., SUNY, Stony
Brook NY 11794), J. Dignon, J. Air Waste Mgmt. Assoc., 42(2),
159-163, Feb. 1992.
Uses statistical models to obtain emissions based on fossil fuel consumption
for every country in the world for every year from 1970 to 1986. Global
emissions of NOx increased by nearly a third in the period, and those of SOx by
"Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Irrigated Corn as Affected by
Nitrification Inhibitors," K.F. Bronson (USDA-ARS, POB E, Ft. Collins CO
80522), A.R. Mosier, S.R. Bishnoi, Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., 56(1),
161-165, Jan.-Feb. 1992.
In a 1989 field experiment, two nitrification inhibitors (encapsulated
calcium carbide and nitropyrin) were applied with urea seven weeks after
planting corn. Nitrification inhibitors appear to be a useful tool for
mitigating N2O emissions in agricultural systems.
"Recovering CO2 from Large- and Medium-Size Stationary Combustors,"
A.M. Wolsky (Argonne Nat. Lab., 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne IL 60439), E.J.
Daniels, B.J. Jody, J. Air Waste Mgmt. Assoc., 41(4), 449-454,
Burning a hydrocarbon fuel using a mixture of O2 and CO2 rather than air as
the oxidant results in a product stream containing primarily CO2 and H2O. This
stream is dried and conditioned to meet the specifications of the end user. Cost
effectiveness depends on variables such as plant size, type of fuel, capital
cost, and cost of electricity for operations.
"Global Warming and the Primary Metals Industry," D. Forrest
(Mater. Eng., MIT, Cambridge MA 02139), J. Szekely, J. Minerals, Metals &
Mater. Soc., 43(12), 23-30, Dec. 1991.
The U.S. primary metals industry accounts for slightly less than one percent
of global carbon emissions. This could be reduced by implementing existing
energy conservation measures, by more extensive recycling, and by developing and
implementing alternative processing technologies.
"Formation of N2O in Circulating Fluidized-Bed Boilers," L.E.
Amand (Dept. Energy Conversion, Chalmers Inst. Technol., S-41296 Gothenburg,
Swed.), B. Leckner, S. Andersson, Energy & Fuels, 5(6),
N2O formation is assumed to be influenced by two routes, either by char or
by hydrogen cyanide originating from the fuel volatiles. Discusses laboratory
tests designed to investigate these routes, but no definite conclusions can be
"Hydrogen in the Steel Industry," J. Gretz (Joint Res. Ctr.,
Comm. Eur. Commun., I-21020 Ispra, Italy), W. Korf, R. Lyons, Intl. J.
Hydrogen Energy, 16(10), 691-693, 1991.
Since iron and steel production are among the largest contributors to
atmospheric CO2, using hydrogen instead of carbon from coal or charcoal to
reduce iron ore has great potential for reducing CO2 emissions, and it avoids
impurities. If generated by relatively cheap and abundant hydropower, hydrogen
might become competitive even in terms of direct operating costs.
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