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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 8, AUGUST 1992

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
EMISSIONS AND THEIR CONTROL


Item #d92aug16

"Sequestration of CO2 in the Deep Ocean by Shallow Water Injection," P.M. Haugan (Nansen Environ. Ctr., E. Griegs vei 3A, N-5037 Solheimsvik, Norway), H. Drange, Nature, 357(6376), 318-320, May 28, 1992.

(See Res. News, this issue--Aug. 1992.) While previous studies of the possible injection of CO2 into the ocean emphasized the need to inject the gas at great depths, this paper shows that the increased water density resulting from CO2 dissolution may be sufficient to transport the dissolved gas to lower depths even for shallow injection (upper 200-400 m). The coast of Norway is an example of a region where this factor could be exploited. Effects on marine life downstream need evaluation. (See related correspondence, ibid., pp. 547-548, June 18.)


Item #d92aug17

"Methane from Ruminants in Relation to Global Warming," A. Moss (ADAS Feed Eval. Unit, Stratford upon Avon, Warwickshire CV37 9RQ, UK), Chem. & Indus., 334-336, May 4, 1992.

An overview with 25 references on research results concerning factors that determine emissions and strategies for reducing them by altering animal feed quality and feed management.


Item #d92aug18

Two items from Ambio, 21(2), Apr. 1992:

"Solar-Generated Building Material from Seawater as a Sink for Carbon," W.H. Hilbertz (Mozartstr. 12, D-493 Detmold, Ger.), 126-129.

Carbon-storing limestone can be precipitated from sea water using electricity from renewable sources. Existing resources for the operation of the mineral accretion process are surveyed, and similarities in biogenic calcium carbonate deposition are discussed. Proposes precipitated limestone and material consisting of artificial limestone and hard coral skeletons as building materials and as a sink for carbon.

Discussion on "Sources and Sinks of Greenhouse Gases in Sweden: A Case Study," pp. 191-192.


Item #d92aug19

"Growing Halophytes to Remove Carbon from the Atmosphere," E.P. Glenn (Environ. Res. Lab., Tucson, Ariz.), C.N. Hodges et al., Environment, 34(3), 40-43, Apr. 1992.

An overview of recent work (including the authors' field experiments) examining the feasibility of growing halophytes (wild, salt-tolerant plants) to sequester carbon on desert lands.


Item #d92aug20

"NOx and SOx Emissions from Fossil Fuels: A Global Distribution," J. Dignon (Livermore Lab., Univ. California, Livermore CA 94550), Atmos. Environ., 26A(6), 1157-1163, 1992.

Presents a database (available from the author) of annual emissions at a 1 resolution, based on fuel consumption for individual countries and distributed according to human population within each country.


Item #d92aug21

"Aluminum and Global Warming," D. Abrahamson (Humphrey Inst. Public Affairs, Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455), Nature, 356(6369), 484, Apr. 9, 1992. Letter pointing out that the IPCC has overlooked two important greenhouse gases, CF4 and C2F6, generated by primary aluminum smelting.


Item #d92aug22

"Sources of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide," O. Badr (Dept. Appl. Energy, Cranfield Inst. Tech., Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK), S.D. Probert, Appl. Energy, 42(3), 129-176, 1992.

Identifies and discusses the individual sources of N2O and estimates of corresponding emission rates. The accuracy of these estimates is poor, and more field measurements are needed.


Item #d92aug23

"SF6 and the Atmosphere," L. Niemeyer (ABB Corp. Res., Baden, Switz.), F.Y. Chu, IEEE Trans. on Elec. Insulation, 27(1), 184-187, Feb. 1992. Shows that the contribution of this gas (predominantly used for electrical insulation and switching) to global warming and ozone depletion is insignificant.


Item #d92aug24

"Global Emissions of Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxides in Fossil Fuel Combustion 1970-1986," S. Hameed (Inst. Terr. Plan. Atmos., SUNY, Stony Brook NY 11794), J. Dignon, J. Air Waste Mgmt. Assoc., 42(2), 159-163, Feb. 1992.

Uses statistical models to obtain emissions based on fossil fuel consumption for every country in the world for every year from 1970 to 1986. Global emissions of NOx increased by nearly a third in the period, and those of SOx by about 18%.


Item #d92aug25

"Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Irrigated Corn as Affected by Nitrification Inhibitors," K.F. Bronson (USDA-ARS, POB E, Ft. Collins CO 80522), A.R. Mosier, S.R. Bishnoi, Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J., 56(1), 161-165, Jan.-Feb. 1992.

In a 1989 field experiment, two nitrification inhibitors (encapsulated calcium carbide and nitropyrin) were applied with urea seven weeks after planting corn. Nitrification inhibitors appear to be a useful tool for mitigating N2O emissions in agricultural systems.


Item #d92aug26

"Recovering CO2 from Large- and Medium-Size Stationary Combustors," A.M. Wolsky (Argonne Nat. Lab., 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne IL 60439), E.J. Daniels, B.J. Jody, J. Air Waste Mgmt. Assoc., 41(4), 449-454, Apr. 1991.

Burning a hydrocarbon fuel using a mixture of O2 and CO2 rather than air as the oxidant results in a product stream containing primarily CO2 and H2O. This stream is dried and conditioned to meet the specifications of the end user. Cost effectiveness depends on variables such as plant size, type of fuel, capital cost, and cost of electricity for operations.


Item #d92aug27

"Global Warming and the Primary Metals Industry," D. Forrest (Mater. Eng., MIT, Cambridge MA 02139), J. Szekely, J. Minerals, Metals & Mater. Soc., 43(12), 23-30, Dec. 1991.

The U.S. primary metals industry accounts for slightly less than one percent of global carbon emissions. This could be reduced by implementing existing energy conservation measures, by more extensive recycling, and by developing and implementing alternative processing technologies.


Item #d92aug28

"Formation of N2O in Circulating Fluidized-Bed Boilers," L.E. Amand (Dept. Energy Conversion, Chalmers Inst. Technol., S-41296 Gothenburg, Swed.), B. Leckner, S. Andersson, Energy & Fuels, 5(6), 815-823, 1991.

N2O formation is assumed to be influenced by two routes, either by char or by hydrogen cyanide originating from the fuel volatiles. Discusses laboratory tests designed to investigate these routes, but no definite conclusions can be drawn.


Item #d92aug29

"Hydrogen in the Steel Industry," J. Gretz (Joint Res. Ctr., Comm. Eur. Commun., I-21020 Ispra, Italy), W. Korf, R. Lyons, Intl. J. Hydrogen Energy, 16(10), 691-693, 1991.

Since iron and steel production are among the largest contributors to atmospheric CO2, using hydrogen instead of carbon from coal or charcoal to reduce iron ore has great potential for reducing CO2 emissions, and it avoids impurities. If generated by relatively cheap and abundant hydropower, hydrogen might become competitive even in terms of direct operating costs.

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