February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 1992
GENERAL INTEREST--SCIENCE: GENERAL
"Some Results from an Intercomparison of the Climates Simulated by 14
Atmospheric General Circulation Models," G.J. Boer (Numerical Modeling
Div., Can. Clim. Ctr., 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview ON M3H 5T4, Can.), K. Arpe
et al., J. Geophys. Res., 97(D12), 12,771-12,786, Aug. 20, 1992.
Compares cross sections of temperature, zonal wind, and meridional stream
function, as well as latitudinal distributions of mean sea level pressure and
precipitation rate. Investigates deficiencies that are common to all models and
those that differ among models, effects of increased resolution, and approaches
to understanding and reducing model deficiencies.
"GPS Meteorology: Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Water Vapor Using the
Global Positioning System," M. Bevis (Dept. Marine Sci., North Carolina St.
Univ., Raleigh NC 27695), S. Businger et al., ibid., 97(D14),
15,787-15,801, Oct. 20, 1992.
GPS networks offer the possibility of observing the horizontal distribution
of precipitable water vapor with unprecedented coverage and a temporal
resolution on the order of 10 minutes, using the methods devised for estimating
the extent to which signals propagating from GPS satellites to ground stations
have been delayed by water vapor. Specially designed station networks could
provide the local vertical profile of vapor as well.
Three items on Milankovitch theory (see Research News, this GLOBAL
CLIMATE CHANGE DIGEST issue--Dec. 1992) :
"Upset for Milankovitch Theory," W.S. Broecker (Lamont-Doherty
Geol. Observ., Palisades NY 10964), Nature, 359(6398), 779-780,
Oct. 29, 1992. Discusses implications of the following two articles, published
in Science, which call into question the validity of the Milankovitch
(astronomical) theory of ice ages.
"Continuous 500,000-Year Climate Record from Vein Calcite in Devils
Hole, Nevada," I.J. Winograd (Nat. Ctr., MS-432, USGS, Reston VA 22092),
T.B. Coplen et al., Science, 258(5080), 255-260, Oct. 9, 1992.
"Mass-Spectrophotometric 230Th-234U-238U Dating of the Devils Hole
Calcite Vein," K.R. Ludwig (Fed. Ctr., MS-963, USGS, Denver CO 80225), K.R.
Simmons et al., ibid., 284-287.
"Effects of Boreal Forest Vegetation on Global Climate," G.R.
Bonan (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), D. Pollard, S.L. Thompson, Nature,
359(6397), 716-718, Oct. 22, 1992.
Results from a global climate model show that the boreal forest warms air
temperatures in both winter and summer, relative to simulations in which it is
replaced with bare ground or tundra vegetation. Future redistributions of boreal
forest and tundra (from extensive logging or global warming, for instance) could
initiate important climate feedbacks, which could extend to lower latitudes.
"Tropical Forests and Trace Gases--Potential Interactions between
Tropical Biology and the Atmospheric Sciences," P.M. Vitousek (Dept. Biol.,
Stanford Univ., Stanford CA 94305), P.A. Matson, Biotropica, 24(2),
Part B, Special Issue, 233-239, June 1992.
Shows how knowledge of the functioning of tropical ecosystems can contribute
to building a global source budget for the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide, and how
accumulating atmospheric measurements suggest that increased levels of
tropospheric ozone are a significant threat to tropical ecosystems, even in
"Techniques for Sensitivity Analysis of Simulation Models: A Case
Study of the CO2 Greenhouse Effect," J.P.C. Kleijnen (Katholieke (Tilburg)
Univ. Brabant, 500 LE Tilburg, Neth.), G. van Ham, J. Rotmans, Simulations,
58(6), 410-417, June 1992.
To illustrate their application to simulation models in several disciplines,
simple techniques including least squares curve fitting, regression analysis and
statistical designs are applied to the carbon-cycle and other modules of a large
integrated assessment model, developed in the Netherlands, for the greenhouse
effect. Some estimated effects are surprising.
"Global and Hemispheric Changes in Tropospheric Chemistry," E.
Sanhueza (Abt. Luftchem., M. Planck Inst. Chem., Saarstr. 23, Postfach 3060,
D-6500 Mainz, Ger.), Intercienca, 17(4), 208-217, July-Aug.
Examines changes in the tropospheric concentrations of long-lived and
short-lived compounds involved with greenhouse warming, acid rain and changes in
the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, emphasizing the differences between
the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. A decrease in oxidizing capacity
(tropospheric ozone) is occurring in the Southern Hemisphere, together with an
increase in the Northern Hemisphere, resulting in an overall decrease in the
reactivity of the atmosphere, which contributes to the buildup of trace gases
affecting global climate and stratospheric ozone.
New publication: The Atmosphere-Ocean System, Ed.
in Chief K. Katsaros (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA
98195). A re-orientation of Ocean-Air Interactions, with expanded aims
and scope to reflect work on the interlinked processes governing present and
future climate. First issue due March 1993 from Gordon & Breach Science
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Index of Abbreviations