February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 1992
STRATOSPHERIC OZONE: CHEMISTRY, PHYSICS AND DYNAMICS
"Ozone 'Minihole' over Northern Scandinavia," Rabbe
(Dept. Phys., Univ. Oslo, Oslo, Norway), S.H.H. Larsen, J. Atmos. Terr.
Phys., 54(11-12), 1447-1451, Nov.-Dec. 1992.
The migrating region of low total ozone values observed over England and
Scandinavia in February 1990 was mainly created by the vertical motions of a
strong cyclonic development in the North Atlantic, although heterogeneous
chemical processes may also have been involved.
"The Uptake of HNO3 onto Ice, NAT, and Frozen Sulfuric Acid,"
D.R. Hanson (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), Geophys.
Res. Lett., 19(20), 2063-2066, Oct. 23, 1992. Observations using a
cylindrical flow tube imply that the condensation temperatures of Type I PSCs
are 2-3 K colder than those expected for NAT.
Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D14), Oct. 20, 1992:
"Focused Sun Observations Using a Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer,"
W.A.P. Josefsson (Swed. Meteor. Inst., S-601 75 Norrköping, Swed.),
15,813-15,817. Scattered radiation leads to large errors in direct and focused
sun observations made with Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers. Gives a method
for correcting Brewer observations at low sun angles, which becomes especially
important for measuring total ozone during the polar winter.
"Interaction of HCl Vapor with Water-Ice: Implications for the
Stratosphere," J.P.D. Abbatt (Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139),
K.D. Beyer et al., 15,819-15,826. Thermal analysis and FTIR spectroscopy showed
that ice crystals do have an affinity for HCl vapor, indicating that the
mechanism for chlorine activation in the stratosphere involves HCl uptake by
cloud particles as a first step.
"Condensation and Evaporation of H2O on Ice Surfaces," D.R.
Haynes (Dept. Chem., Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), N.J. Tro, S.M. George,
J. Phys. Chem., 96(21), 8502-8509, Oct. 15, 1992. High
condensation and evaporation coefficients measured by optical interference
predict the presence of polar stratospheric clouds over the Antarctic pole.
Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(19), Oct. 2, 1992:
"Submillimeterwave Heterodyne Measurements of Stratospheric ClO, HCl,
O3 and HO2: First Results," R.A. Stachnik (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak
Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), J.C. Hardy et al., 1931-1934. Vertical profiles
obtained from a balloon-borne spectrophotometer are in broad agreement with
previous measurements, but differ from model photochemistry for the ratio of ClO
"A Determination of the Rate Constant for the Reaction of HOCl with
O-Atoms at Room Temperature," R. Vogt (Inst. Phys. Chem., Univ. Kiel,
D-2300 Kiel, Ger.), R.N. Schindler, 1935-1937. The reaction is found to be
faster than previously thought, and should be considered a removal process for
Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(18), Sep. 23, 1992:
"Volcanic Aerosol and Ozone Depletion within the Antarctic Polar Vortex
during the Austral Spring of 1991," T. Deshler (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ.
Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071), A. Adriani et al., 1819-1822. Observations by lidar
and balloon-borne particle counters describe the aerosol layer from the eruption
of Cerro Hudson, and provide evidence of its contribution to ozone depletion in
the lower stratosphere.
"Observations of Correlated Behavior of Stratospheric Ozone and Aerosol
at Thule during Winter 1991-1992," A. di Sarra (Dip. Fis., Univ. "La
Sapienza," Piazzale A. Moro 2, 00185 Rome, Italy), M. Cacciani et al.,
1823-1826. Observations from the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment
(EASOE) show that the Arctic stratosphere was loaded with aerosol following the
Mt. Pinatubo eruption of June 1991. Aerosol and ozone exhibited highly layered
structure and negative correlation.
Three items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(17), Sep. 4,
"Penetration of Mt. Pinatubo Aerosols into the North Polar Vortex,"
J.M. Rosen (Dept. Phys., Univ. Wyoming, Laramie WY 80271), N.T. Kjome et al.,
1751-1754. Documents the substantial northward transport of aerosol at different
altitudes by the end of the 1992 winter, as indicated by a balloon-borne,
"Polar Stratospheric Clouds over McMurdo, Antarctica, during the 1991
Spring: Lidar and Particle Counter Measurements," A. Adriani (IFA, CNR,
Frascati, Italy), T. Deshler et al., 1755-1758. Both nitric acid trihydrate and
ice clouds were observed between 10 and 23 km in different formation stages and
with different cooling rates, with both measurement techniques. Calculated and
measured scattering ratios agreed except during high wave activity. Lee waves
generated by mountains induced ice cloud formation at altitudes as high as 20
"Gaseous Sulfuric Acid and Sulfur Dioxide Measurements in the Arctic
Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Implications for Hydroxyl Radical
Abundances," O. Möhler (M. Planck Inst. Kernphys., Postfach 103980,
D-6900 Heidelberg, Ger.), F. Arnold, 1763-1766. SO2 volume mixing ratios
decreased sharply above the tropopause, in contrast to previous measurements.
Inferred OH concentrations were roughly consistent with model predictions.
"Airborne Far-Infrared Heterodyne Remote Sensing of Stratospheric
OH--A Feasibility Study," S. Miller (Deutsch Forschungsanstalt Luft &
Raumfahrt, Instoptoelektr., W-8031 Oberpfaffenhofen, Ger.), M. Birk et al., Intl.
J. Infrared & Millimeter Waves, 13(9), 1241-1268, Sep. 1992.
When operated on a standard aircraft at altitude 12 km, the heterodyne can
retrieve OH concentration profiles above the flight altitude with a typical
vertical resolution of 5-7 km.
"Catalytic Destruction of Ozone by Chlorofluorocarbons and Partial
Restoration by Methane in Large Laboratory Experiments," A.Y. Wong (Dept.
Phys., Univ. California, Los Angeles CA 90024), R.G. Suchannek, R. Kanner, Phys.
Lett. A, 168(5-6), 423-428, Sep. 7, 1992. A destruction ratio of one
Cl to 4x105 O3 molecules was found; the introduction of methane reduced ozone
destruction but did not eliminate it even at a methane density six times that of
Two items from Spectrochim. Acta Part A--Molec. Spectros., 48(9),
"The Spectroscopy of OClO in Polar Liquids," R.C. Dunn (Dept.
Chem., Univ. California San Diego, La Jolla CA 92093), B.N. Flanders et al.,
1293-1301. Examines near UV transitions of OClO in solvents, and discusses
possible relevance of results to stratospheric ozone.
"Spectroscopic Studies of Model Polar Stratospheric Cloud Films,"
M.A. Tolbert (Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), B.G. Koehler, A.M. Middlebrook,
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows there are three stable
stoichiometric hydrates of nitric acid in addition to amorphous nitric acid/ice
mixtures. Also characterizes laboratory surfaces on which measurements of
heterogeneous reaction rates are performed, and determines the desorption
kinetics for evaporation of model PSC films.
"1987-1989 Total Ozone and Ozone Sounding Observations in Northern
Scandinavia and Antarctica and the Climatology of the Lower Stratosphere during
1965-1988 in Northern Finland," P. Taalas (Climatol. Div., Finnish Meteor.
Inst., POB 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland), E. Kyrö, J. Atmos. Terr.
Phys., 54(9), 1089-1099, Sep. 1992.
Data from three stations at high northern latitudes are analyzed and
contrasted with previous data from corresponding southern latitudes. No severe
ozone depletions were observed; springtime variability of ozone in the lower
stratosphere was clearly connected to meteorological variability. A 24-year
temperature record at one northern station shows a potential for polar
stratospheric cloud formation in winter and early spring.
Two items from J. Phys. Chem., 96(19), Sep. 17, 1992:
"Chloryl Nitrate--A Novel Product of the OClO + NO3 + M Recombination,"
R.R. Friedl (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), S.P.
Sander, Y.L. Yung, 7490-7493. Flow reactor experiments suggest that O2ClONO2 may
exist in the terrestrial stratosphere.
"Heterogeneous Interactions of ClONO2 and HCl on Nitric Acid Trihydrate
at 202 K," J.P.D. Abbatt (Dept. Geophys., Univ. Chicago, 6734 S. Ellis
Ave., Chicago IL 60637), M.J. Molina, 7674-7679. Determines reaction
probabilities for ClONO2 + H2O [yields] HOCl + HNO3 and ClONO2 + HCl [yields]
Cl2 + HNO3, using a low-pressure flow tube coupled to a mass spectrometer.
"The Sticking of HCl and ClOH to Ice--A Computational Study,"
G.J. Kroes (Dept. Chem., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK),
D.C. Clary, J. Phys. Chem., 96(17), 7079-7088, Aug. 20, 1992.
Classical trajectory calculations suggest that the high surface coverages found
in experiments cannot be due to physisorption alone.
Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(16), Aug. 21, 1992:
"Upper Limit for Stratospheric HBr Using Far-Infrared Thermal Emission
Spectroscopy," W.A. Traub (Harvard-Smithsonian Inst. Astrophys., 60 Garden
St., Cambridge MA 02138), D.G. Johnson et al., 1651-1654. The weighted average 1
sigma upper limit for HBr is 4 pptv at 32 km, smaller than the only other
published value but consistent with a theoretical estimate for this altitude.
"Lidar Conversion Parameters Derived from SAGE II Extinction
Measurements," L.W. Thomason (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley, Hampton VA
23665), M.T. Osborn, 1655-1658. Used multiwavelength aerosol extinction
measurements to estimate mass- and extinction-to-backscatter conversion
Four items from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D12), Aug. 20, 1992:
"A New Numerical Model of the Middle Atmosphere. 1. Dynamics and
Transport of Tropospheric Source Gases," R.R. Garcia (NCAR, POB 3000,
Boulder CO 80307), F. Stordal et al., 12,967-12,991. The model's improved
representation of zonal mean dynamics and distribution of trace chemical species
produces very steep chemical gradients at the edge of the polar vortex. Mixing
ratios of trace gases of tropospheric origin are very low within the vortex in
winter. Computed distributions of methane and nitrous oxide agree with
"A Comparison of Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor [LIMS] of the
Stratosphere and Radiosonde Temperatures in the Lower Stratosphere Poleward of
60N," E.E. Remsberg (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665),
P.P. Bhatt, T. Miles, 13,001-13,014. Nimbus 7 LIMS temperature measurements were
examined for possible bias that could explain discrepancies between
concentrations of NO2 derived from LIMS and from gas-phase model calculations.
No such bias was found.
"Optical Effects of Polar Stratospheric Clouds on the Retrieval of TOMS
Total Ozone," O. Torres (Hughes STX Corp., Lanham MD 20706), Z. Ahmad, J.R.
Herman, 13,015-13,024. Combined measurements from instruments on the ground, on
balloons and aboard aircraft indicate that PSCs located near or above the ozone
density maximum can result in the appearance of false "miniholes" in
TOMS ozone data. Examples of real and false miniholes are described using data
from the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) and from balloon
flights over Norway and Sweden.
"Reactive Nitrogen, Ozone and Nitrate Aerosols Observed in the Arctic
Stratosphere in January 1990," Y. Kondo (Solar Terrestrial Environ. Lab.,
Nagoya Univ., Toyokawa, Aichi 442, Japan), P. Aimedieu, 13,025-13,038. Data from
balloons launched in Sweden show that a degree of denitrification had occurred
within the polar vortex by mid-January, apparently a result of very cold
temperatures. HNO3 was found to be highly supersaturated over nitric acid
Two items from J. Atmos. Chem., 15(2), Aug. 1992:
"The 1985 Chlorine and Fluorine Inventories in the Stratosphere Based
on ATMOS Observations at 30° North Latitude," R. Zander (Inst.
Astrophys., Univ. Liège, B-4000 Liège-Cointe, Belg.), M.R. Gunson
et al., 171-186. High-resolution infrared solar observations made aboard
Spacelab 3 were used to evaluate the total budgets of the odd Cl and F families
in the stratosphere. Discussion emphasizes the conservation of Cl and F, and the
partitioning among source, sink and reservoir gases.
"NO2 Total Column Evolution during the 1989 Spring at Antarctica
Peninsula," M. Gil (Lab. Estudios de la Atmós., INTA, Torrejon de
Ardoz, 28850 Madrid, Spain), J. Cacho, 187-200. Results of ground-based visible
differential absorption spectrometry during twilight are discussed in terms of
diurnal fluctuations, planetary and synoptic scale variations, and relationships
to ozone and temperature.
"Global Operational Monitoring of Atmospheric Ozone from Space,"
A.I. Kot (An Sevchenko Appl. Phys. Problems Res. Inst., Minsk, Belorussia), A.M.
Lyudchik et al., Soviet J. Remote Sensing, 10(1), 109-120, 1992.
Describes the use of satellite observations of the distribution of atmospheric
UV radiance for monitoring the ozone layer, and illustrates the method's
effectiveness with model calculations.
"On the Limitation of Steady-State Expressions as Tests of
Photochemical Theory of the Stratosphere," R. Toumi (Dept. Chem., Univ.
Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), J.A. Pyle, J. Atmos. Terr.
Phys., 54(7-8), 819-828, July-Aug. 1992.
Considers the accuracies required for testing a number of different
steady-state expressions as a function of altitude, including those for NO2 and
HNO3. Verifies the HCl steady-state assumption near 40 km at the time and
location of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy experiment.
"An Investigation into the Causes of Stratospheric Ozone Loss in the
Southern Australasian Region," P. Lehmann (Bur. Meteor., GPO Box 1289K,
Melbourne 3001, Australia), D.J. Karoly et al., Geophys. Res. Lett.,
19(14), 1463-1466, July 24, 1992. Comparison of model results and
measurements indicates that the recent downward trend in ozone at Macquarie
Island is not related to stratospheric dynamic variability, suggesting
photochemical destruction as a possibility.
"The Antarctic Ozone Lidar System," L. Stefanutti (CNR, Ist. Ric
Onde Elettromagnet, Via Panciatichi 64, I-50127 Florence, Italy), F. Castagnoli
et al., Appl. Phys. B--Photophys. & Laser Chem., 55(1),
3-12, July 1992. Describes a new French system for measuring tropospheric and
stratospheric ozone, stratospheric aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds, and
presents preliminary measurements in the Antarctic winter of 1991.
Three items from J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 54(5), May 1992:
"Recent Developments of the Light Climatic Observatory--Ozone Measuring
Station of the Swiss Meteorological Institute (LKO) at Arosa," B. Hoegger
(Aerol. Sta., Swiss Meteor. Inst., 1530 Payerne, Switz.), G. Leverat et al.,
497-505. Describes improved instruments and data processing approaches for
"Lidar Measurements and Umkehr Observations of the Ozone Vertical
Distribution at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence," A.M. Lacoste (Univ.
Paris 06, CNRS, Serv. Aeron., 4 Pl. Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 05, France), S.
Godin, G. Megie, 571-582. Ozone values retrieved by the new-conventional Umkehr
method are in good agreement with lidar measurements, especially for Umkehr
layers 4 to 7. Some bias is observed during winter in layer 8.
"Dynamics and the Ozone Distribution in the Winter
Stratosphere--Modeling the Interhemispheric Differences," D. Cariolle
(Meteor. France, Ctr. Natl. Tech. Meteor., 42 Ave. Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse,
France), M. Amodei, P. Simon, 627-640. Results from a two-year simulation of a
general circulation model show that the transport of ozone depletion to the
mid-latitudes may be more effective in the Northern than Southern Hemisphere.
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