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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 1992

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
EARTH RADIATION BUDGET


Item #d92dec54

"Seasonal Variation of Surface Radiation Budget Derived from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project C1 Data," W.L. Darnell (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), W.F. Staylor et al., J. Geophys. Res., 97(D14), 15,741-15,760, Oct. 20, 1992.

Presents for the first time geographical and seasonal variations of the entire surface radiation budget from pole to pole. Estimated fluxes are accurate to about 16 W m-2 on a global average, with most error attributable to errors in input data.


Item #d92dec55

"The Effect of Cloud Type on Earth's Energy Balance: Results for Selected Regions," M.E. Ockert-Bell, D.L. Hartmann (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), J. Clim., 5(10), 1157-1171, Oct. 1992.

Compares ISCCP cloud information with planetary albedo, outgoing longwave radiation and net radiation measured at the top of the atmosphere by ERBE. Principal component analysis indicates that for many purposes the data set can be represented by about five cloud types. Total fractional area coverage of cloudiness is a poor predictor of radiation budget quantities, unless divided into contributions from distinct cloud types.


Item #d92dec56

"A Model for the Energy Budget of the Atmosphere--Comparison with Data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment," K. Minschwaner (Dept. Earth Sci., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), M.B. McElroy, Planet. & Space Sci., 40(9), 1237-1250, Sep. 1992.

A radiative-convective model is developed to examine the sensitivity of clear-sky fluxes of infrared radiation to changes in sea surface temperature, atmospheric lapse rates and relative humidity. One conclusion is that enhanced greenhouse forcing at high-surface temperatures is felt primarily in the atmosphere, rather than at the surface.


Item #d92dec57

"A Reexamination of the Greenhouse Effect due to CFC-11 and CFC-12," D.P. Kratz (Inst. Terr. Planet. Atmos., SUNY, Stony Brook NY 11794), P. Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectros. & Radiative Transfer, 48(3), 245-254, Sep. 1992.

Examines the effect of the most recent laboratory data on the thermal infrared bands of these CFCs, in terms of temperature dependence of absorption coefficients, validity of the optically-thin approximation, and absorption by water vapor. The collective effect may be a 35% change in surface-troposphere heating for every ppv introduced into a model atmosphere.


Item #d92dec58

"The Potential Effects of Volcanic Aerosols on Cirrus Cloud Microphysics," E.J. Jensen (NASA-Ames, Moffet Field CA 94035), O.B. Toon, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(17), 1759-1762, Sep. 4, 1992.

Simulations suggest that the presence of volcanic aerosols may increase the net radiative forcing (surface warming) of certain types of cirrus near the tropopause by as much as 8 W m-2. Observations are needed to verify this effect and estimate its global impact.


Item #d92dec59

"Effects of Cloud Optical Property Feedbacks on the Greenhouse Warming," G. Molnar (Atmos. Environ. Res., 840 Memorial Dr., Cambridge, MA 02139), W.-C. Wang, J. Clim., 5(8), 814-821, Aug. 1992.

A 1-D radiative-convective model illustrates that the difference in the vertical distribution of radiative forcing for CO2 increase and for changes of solar constant can result in different feedbacks through cloud optical thickness. Results of other experiments show that the negative feedback caused by a single cloud layer in the presence of increased CO2 is much smaller for multiple-layer clouds.


Item #d92dec60

"Estimating the Sun's Radiative Output during the Maunder Minimum," J. Lean (Code 4165L, Naval Res. Lab., Washington DC 20375), Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(15), 1591-1594, Aug. 3, 1992.

Based on understanding of the variations in total solar irradiance and in Ca II emission from the Sun and stars, estimates that solar irradiance was 24% below present during the Maunder Minimum in solar magnetic activity (1645-1715 A.D.). This would have caused a global cooling of 0.2-0.6 ° C, which compares with the roughly 1 ° C cooling of the Little Ice Age.


Item #d92dec61

"Ozone Depletion in the Upper Atmosphere Estimated from Satellite and Space Shuttle Data," E. Hilsenrath (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), R.P. Cebula, C.H. Jackman, Nature, 358(6382), 131-133, July 9, 1992.

While ozone losses due to heterogeneous reactions involving chlorine and bromine are greatest in the lower stratosphere (near 20 km), ozone concentration near 45 km has decreased over the 1980s by about 7%, with attendant implications for the radiative properties of the upper atmosphere.


Item #d92dec62

"Line-by-Line Computation of the Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum Using the Decomposed Voigt Line Shape," A. Uchiyama (Meteor. Res. Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan), J. Quant. Spectros. & Radiative Transfer, 47(6), 521-532, June 1992. Presents an improved method for calculating spectral absorption coefficients.


Item #d92dec63

"Comparison of Observed and Calculated Clear Sky Greenhouse Effect: Implications for Climate Studies," J.T. Kiehl (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), B.P. Briegleb, J. Geophys. Res., 97(D9), 10,037-10,049, June 20, 1992.

Investigates the accuracy of clear sky fluxes analyzed from ERBE measurements by using independent atmospheric and surface data in conjunction with a detailed longwave radiation model. For most regions over the ocean the calculated fluxes agree with measured, except in regions of deep convective activity. Analyzed fluxes may give a more consistent data set for general circulation modeling.


Item #d92dec64

"Interpretation of Seasonal Cloud-Climate Interactions Using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Data," R.D. Cess (Inst. Terr. Planet. Atmos., SUNY, Stony Brook NY 11794), E.F. Harrison et al., ibid., 97(D7), 7613-7617, May 20, 1992.

Proposes an approach for using satellite data to interpret seasonal cloud-climate interactions for testing and improving climate models. ERBE data show that seasonal cloud variations produce radiative heating of the surface-atmosphere system in the summer hemisphere and cooling in the winter hemisphere, relative to the annual-mean climate.


Item #d92dec65

"The Significance of Cloud Radiative Forcing to the General Circulation on Climate Time Scales--A Satellite Interpretation," B.J. Sohn (Dept. Meteor., B-161, Florida State Univ., Tallahassee FL 32306), E.A. Smith, J. Atmos. Sci., 49(10), 845-860, May 15, 1992.

Calculations based on Nimbus-7 measurements show that cloud-induced longwave warming is dominant over the tropics, while cloud-induced shortwave cooling is dominant over middle and high latitudes. Three distinct latitudinal regimes of net cloud effect are described. Discusses implications for interannual variations in large-scale circulation.


Item #d92dec66

"Global Radiation Climate Changes: The World Network," G. Stanhill (Dept. Agric. Meteor., Agric. Res. Organiz., Bet Dagan, Israel), S. Moreshet, Clim. Change, 21(1), 57-75, May 1992.

Careful evaluation of data including those from 46 unmoved stations shows a 5.3% mean reduction in global radiation from 1958 to 1985 (weighted for land surfaces). Understanding causes of the substantial variations found among different stations will require further careful study.


Item #d92dec67

"Enhanced Absorption of Solar Radiation by Cloud Droplets Containing Soot Particles in Their Surface," P. Chylek (Dept. Phys., Dalhousie Univ., Halifax NS B3H 3J5, Can.), Quart. J. Royal Meteor. Soc., 118(503), 167-172, Jan. 1992.

Laboratory studies with soot particles from acetylene combustion show that the location of soot particles within droplets influences the absorption of solar radiation by clouds.


Item #d92dec68

"Global Distribution of Photosynthetically Active Radiation as Observed from Satellites," R.T. Pinker (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Maryland, 2213 Computer Sci. Bldg., College Pk. MD 20742), I. Laszlo, J. Clim., 5(1), 56-65, Jan. 1992. Shows how photosynthetically active radiation, which strongly influences net primary productivity and carbon cycling, can be measured on a global scale using ISCCP data.


Item #d92dec69

"The Nimbus 7 Solar Total Irradiance--A New Algorithm for Its Derivation," D.V. Hoyt (Res. & Data Syst. Corp., 7855 Walker Dr., S. 460, Greenbelt MD 20770), H.L. Kyle et al., J. Geophys. Res., 97(A1), 51-63, Jan. 1, 1992.

Evaluates in detail several factors influencing the Nimbus 7 solar radiation measurements. Concludes that a self-consistent set of solar irradiance measurements from several satellites over nearly two solar cycles seems feasible.


Item #d92dec70

"The Clear-Sky Greenhouse Effect Sensitivity to a Sea Surface Temperature Change," J. Ph. Duvel (Lab. Météor. Dynamique, CNRS, école Polytechnique, Rte. Depart. 36, 91128 Palaiseu Cedex, France), F.M. Brééon, J. Clim., 4(12), 1162-1169, Dec. 1991.

The response of the clear-sky greenhouse effect (defined as the outgoing infrared flux trapped by atmospheric gases) to sea surface temperatures is studied using ERBE measurements, and related to previous findings of Raval and Ramanathan (1989). Maximum sensitivity of the greenhouse effect is found at high temperatures (28° -32° C) and low temperatures (0° -4° C).


Item #d92dec71

"Outgoing Longwave Radiation and Its Diurnal Variation from Combined ERBE and Meteosat Observations," F. Cheruy (address immed. above), R.S. Kandel, J.P. Duvel, J. Geophys. Res., 96(12), Dec. 20, 1991. "1. Estimating OLR from Meteosat Data," 22,611-22,622. "2. Using Meteosat Data to Determine the Longwave Diurnal Cycle," 22,623-22,630.

Presents a multiple regression technique for deriving longwave radiant exitance, integrated over the entire longwave band, from radiance observations made in relatively narrow bands. Compares monthly mean diurnal variations determined by this method from Meteosat data with those determined from ERBE observations.


Item #d92dec72

"Molecular Absorption of Radiation in the 8-13 micron Atmospheric Window," V.N. Arefev (Moscow Exp. Meteor. Inst., Moscow, Russia), Izvestiya Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Atmos. i Okeana, 27(11), 1187-1225, Nov. 1991. In Russian. Review with almost 400 references of laboratory and field measurements of absorption by atmospheric gases and water vapor.


Item #d92dec73

"Variations in the Sun's Radiative Output," J. Lean (Hulbert Ctr., Naval Res. Lab., Code 4165L, Washington DC 20375), Rev. Geophys., 29(4), 505-535, Nov. 1991.

A review emphasizing the impact of satellite measurements over the past decade. Uncertainties remain to be answered by the next generation of solar radiometers, which began taking observations with the launch of the UARS in September 1991.


Item #d92dec74

"Examination of the Relationship between Outgoing Infrared Window and Total Longwave Fluxes Using Satellite Data," P. Minnis (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), D.F. Young, E.F. Harrison, J. Clim., 4(11), 1114-1133, Nov. 1991.

To determine the accuracy of outgoing longwave radiation derived from narrowband data, infrared window data from GOES are correlated with longwave data from ERBE. Monthly mean outgoing flux may be determined with an rms uncertainty of 1.7% using a single infrared window channel with coincident cloud and humidity data.

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