February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 1992
EARTH RADIATION BUDGET
"Seasonal Variation of Surface Radiation Budget Derived from
International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project C1 Data," W.L. Darnell
(NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), W.F. Staylor et al., J. Geophys. Res.,
97(D14), 15,741-15,760, Oct. 20, 1992.
Presents for the first time geographical and seasonal variations of the
entire surface radiation budget from pole to pole. Estimated fluxes are accurate
to about 16 W m-2 on a global average, with most error attributable to errors in
"The Effect of Cloud Type on Earth's Energy Balance: Results for
Selected Regions," M.E. Ockert-Bell, D.L. Hartmann (Dept. Atmos. Sci.,
Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), J. Clim., 5(10),
1157-1171, Oct. 1992.
Compares ISCCP cloud information with planetary albedo, outgoing longwave
radiation and net radiation measured at the top of the atmosphere by ERBE.
Principal component analysis indicates that for many purposes the data set can
be represented by about five cloud types. Total fractional area coverage of
cloudiness is a poor predictor of radiation budget quantities, unless divided
into contributions from distinct cloud types.
"A Model for the Energy Budget of the Atmosphere--Comparison with
Data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment," K. Minschwaner (Dept.
Earth Sci., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), M.B. McElroy, Planet. &
Space Sci., 40(9), 1237-1250, Sep. 1992.
A radiative-convective model is developed to examine the sensitivity of
clear-sky fluxes of infrared radiation to changes in sea surface temperature,
atmospheric lapse rates and relative humidity. One conclusion is that enhanced
greenhouse forcing at high-surface temperatures is felt primarily in the
atmosphere, rather than at the surface.
"A Reexamination of the Greenhouse Effect due to CFC-11 and CFC-12,"
D.P. Kratz (Inst. Terr. Planet. Atmos., SUNY, Stony Brook NY 11794), P.
Varanasi, J. Quant. Spectros. & Radiative Transfer, 48(3),
245-254, Sep. 1992.
Examines the effect of the most recent laboratory data on the thermal
infrared bands of these CFCs, in terms of temperature dependence of absorption
coefficients, validity of the optically-thin approximation, and absorption by
water vapor. The collective effect may be a 35% change in surface-troposphere
heating for every ppv introduced into a model atmosphere.
"The Potential Effects of Volcanic Aerosols on Cirrus Cloud
Microphysics," E.J. Jensen (NASA-Ames, Moffet Field CA 94035), O.B. Toon,
Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(17), 1759-1762, Sep. 4, 1992.
Simulations suggest that the presence of volcanic aerosols may increase the
net radiative forcing (surface warming) of certain types of cirrus near the
tropopause by as much as 8 W m-2. Observations are needed to verify this effect
and estimate its global impact.
"Effects of Cloud Optical Property Feedbacks on the Greenhouse
Warming," G. Molnar (Atmos. Environ. Res., 840 Memorial Dr., Cambridge, MA
02139), W.-C. Wang, J. Clim., 5(8), 814-821, Aug. 1992.
A 1-D radiative-convective model illustrates that the difference in the
vertical distribution of radiative forcing for CO2 increase and for changes of
solar constant can result in different feedbacks through cloud optical
thickness. Results of other experiments show that the negative feedback caused
by a single cloud layer in the presence of increased CO2 is much smaller for
"Estimating the Sun's Radiative Output during the Maunder Minimum,"
J. Lean (Code 4165L, Naval Res. Lab., Washington DC 20375), Geophys. Res.
Lett., 19(15), 1591-1594, Aug. 3, 1992.
Based on understanding of the variations in total solar irradiance and in Ca
II emission from the Sun and stars, estimates that solar irradiance was 24%
below present during the Maunder Minimum in solar magnetic activity (1645-1715
A.D.). This would have caused a global cooling of 0.2-0.6 ° C, which
compares with the roughly 1 ° C cooling of the Little Ice Age.
"Ozone Depletion in the Upper Atmosphere Estimated from Satellite and
Space Shuttle Data," E. Hilsenrath (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), R.P.
Cebula, C.H. Jackman, Nature, 358(6382), 131-133, July 9, 1992.
While ozone losses due to heterogeneous reactions involving chlorine and
bromine are greatest in the lower stratosphere (near 20 km), ozone concentration
near 45 km has decreased over the 1980s by about 7%, with attendant implications
for the radiative properties of the upper atmosphere.
"Line-by-Line Computation of the Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum
Using the Decomposed Voigt Line Shape," A. Uchiyama (Meteor. Res. Inst.,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan), J. Quant. Spectros. & Radiative Transfer,
47(6), 521-532, June 1992. Presents an improved method for calculating
spectral absorption coefficients.
"Comparison of Observed and Calculated Clear Sky Greenhouse Effect:
Implications for Climate Studies," J.T. Kiehl (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO
80307), B.P. Briegleb, J. Geophys. Res., 97(D9), 10,037-10,049,
June 20, 1992.
Investigates the accuracy of clear sky fluxes analyzed from ERBE
measurements by using independent atmospheric and surface data in conjunction
with a detailed longwave radiation model. For most regions over the ocean the
calculated fluxes agree with measured, except in regions of deep convective
activity. Analyzed fluxes may give a more consistent data set for general
"Interpretation of Seasonal Cloud-Climate Interactions Using Earth
Radiation Budget Experiment Data," R.D. Cess (Inst. Terr. Planet. Atmos.,
SUNY, Stony Brook NY 11794), E.F. Harrison et al., ibid., 97(D7),
7613-7617, May 20, 1992.
Proposes an approach for using satellite data to interpret seasonal
cloud-climate interactions for testing and improving climate models. ERBE data
show that seasonal cloud variations produce radiative heating of the
surface-atmosphere system in the summer hemisphere and cooling in the winter
hemisphere, relative to the annual-mean climate.
"The Significance of Cloud Radiative Forcing to the General
Circulation on Climate Time Scales--A Satellite Interpretation," B.J. Sohn
(Dept. Meteor., B-161, Florida State Univ., Tallahassee FL 32306), E.A. Smith,
J. Atmos. Sci., 49(10), 845-860, May 15, 1992.
Calculations based on Nimbus-7 measurements show that cloud-induced longwave
warming is dominant over the tropics, while cloud-induced shortwave cooling is
dominant over middle and high latitudes. Three distinct latitudinal regimes of
net cloud effect are described. Discusses implications for interannual
variations in large-scale circulation.
"Global Radiation Climate Changes: The World Network," G.
Stanhill (Dept. Agric. Meteor., Agric. Res. Organiz., Bet Dagan, Israel), S.
Moreshet, Clim. Change, 21(1), 57-75, May 1992.
Careful evaluation of data including those from 46 unmoved stations shows a
5.3% mean reduction in global radiation from 1958 to 1985 (weighted for land
surfaces). Understanding causes of the substantial variations found among
different stations will require further careful study.
"Enhanced Absorption of Solar Radiation by Cloud Droplets Containing
Soot Particles in Their Surface," P. Chylek (Dept. Phys., Dalhousie Univ.,
Halifax NS B3H 3J5, Can.), Quart. J. Royal Meteor. Soc., 118(503),
167-172, Jan. 1992.
Laboratory studies with soot particles from acetylene combustion show that
the location of soot particles within droplets influences the absorption of
solar radiation by clouds.
"Global Distribution of Photosynthetically Active Radiation as
Observed from Satellites," R.T. Pinker (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Maryland, 2213
Computer Sci. Bldg., College Pk. MD 20742), I. Laszlo, J. Clim., 5(1),
56-65, Jan. 1992. Shows how photosynthetically active radiation, which strongly
influences net primary productivity and carbon cycling, can be measured on a
global scale using ISCCP data.
"The Nimbus 7 Solar Total Irradiance--A New Algorithm for Its
Derivation," D.V. Hoyt (Res. & Data Syst. Corp., 7855 Walker Dr., S.
460, Greenbelt MD 20770), H.L. Kyle et al., J. Geophys. Res., 97(A1),
51-63, Jan. 1, 1992.
Evaluates in detail several factors influencing the Nimbus 7 solar radiation
measurements. Concludes that a self-consistent set of solar irradiance
measurements from several satellites over nearly two solar cycles seems
"The Clear-Sky Greenhouse Effect Sensitivity to a Sea Surface
Temperature Change," J. Ph. Duvel (Lab. Météor. Dynamique,
CNRS, école Polytechnique, Rte. Depart. 36, 91128 Palaiseu Cedex,
France), F.M. Brééon, J. Clim., 4(12), 1162-1169, Dec.
The response of the clear-sky greenhouse effect (defined as the outgoing
infrared flux trapped by atmospheric gases) to sea surface temperatures is
studied using ERBE measurements, and related to previous findings of Raval and
Ramanathan (1989). Maximum sensitivity of the greenhouse effect is found at high
temperatures (28° -32° C) and low temperatures
(0° -4° C).
"Outgoing Longwave Radiation and Its Diurnal Variation from Combined
ERBE and Meteosat Observations," F. Cheruy (address immed. above), R.S.
Kandel, J.P. Duvel, J. Geophys. Res., 96(12), Dec. 20, 1991. "1.
Estimating OLR from Meteosat Data," 22,611-22,622. "2. Using Meteosat
Data to Determine the Longwave Diurnal Cycle," 22,623-22,630.
Presents a multiple regression technique for deriving longwave radiant
exitance, integrated over the entire longwave band, from radiance observations
made in relatively narrow bands. Compares monthly mean diurnal variations
determined by this method from Meteosat data with those determined from ERBE
"Molecular Absorption of Radiation in the 8-13 micron Atmospheric
Window," V.N. Arefev (Moscow Exp. Meteor. Inst., Moscow, Russia), Izvestiya
Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Atmos. i Okeana, 27(11), 1187-1225, Nov. 1991.
In Russian. Review with almost 400 references of laboratory and field
measurements of absorption by atmospheric gases and water vapor.
"Variations in the Sun's Radiative Output," J. Lean (Hulbert
Ctr., Naval Res. Lab., Code 4165L, Washington DC 20375), Rev. Geophys.,
29(4), 505-535, Nov. 1991.
A review emphasizing the impact of satellite measurements over the past
decade. Uncertainties remain to be answered by the next generation of solar
radiometers, which began taking observations with the launch of the UARS in
"Examination of the Relationship between Outgoing Infrared Window and
Total Longwave Fluxes Using Satellite Data," P. Minnis (Atmos. Sci. Div.,
NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), D.F. Young, E.F. Harrison, J. Clim.,
4(11), 1114-1133, Nov. 1991.
To determine the accuracy of outgoing longwave radiation derived from
narrowband data, infrared window data from GOES are correlated with longwave
data from ERBE. Monthly mean outgoing flux may be determined with an rms
uncertainty of 1.7% using a single infrared window channel with coincident cloud
and humidity data.
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Index of Abbreviations