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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1992

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY


Item #d92jan62

Two items from Atmos. Environ., 26A(1), 1992.

"Net Yield of OH, CO and O3 from the Oxidation of Atmospheric Methane," X.X. Tie (IGPP, Los Alamos Nat. Lab., Los Alamos NM 87545), C.-Y.J. Kao, E.J. Mroz, 125-136.

Used the yield coefficient method to estimate the monthly average production rates of OH, CO and O3 from the oxidation of methane by the OH radical. Globally, for every methane molecule destroyed there is a net annual loss of 0.22 molecules of OH, a yield of 0.82 molecules of CO, and a yield of 1.15 molecules of O3. Results are very sensitive to assumed distributions of OH, HO2 and NOx.

"Atmospheric Trace Compounds at a European Coastal Site--Application to CO2, CH4 and COS Flux Determinations," A. Gaudry (Ctr. Faibles Radioactivités, Lab. mixte CNRS-CEA F-91198, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France), M. Kanakidou et al., 145-157.

Presents the first study of the simultaneous variations of atmospheric concentrations of these compounds under baseline as well as continental conditions, then deduces sources, sinks and continental fluxes above a large rural area.


Item #d92jan63

"Effect of Temperature on the Formation of Photochemical Ozone in a Propene-NOx-Air-Irradiation System," S. Hatakeyama (Nat. Inst. Environ. Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan), H. Akimoto, N. Washida, Environ. Sci. Technol., 25(11), 1884 ff., Nov. 1991. The investigation, prompted by concerns over global warming, used smog chamber experiments and simulations, and found that higher temperatures increase the formation of ozone and prolong high concentrations.


Item #d92jan64

"The Relative Impact of Stratospheric Photochemical Production on Tropospheric NOy Levels: A Model Study," P.S. Kasibhatla (GFDL, Princeton Univ., Princeton NJ O8542), H. Levy II et al., J. Geophys. Res., 96(D10), 18,631-18,646, Oct. 20, 1991.

Used the 11-level GFDL global chemical transport model to assess the importance of the stratosphere as a source of tropospheric reactive nitrogen compounds, which could play a role in the removal of greenhouse gases. The stratospheric source is too small to account for background surface NOy concentrations; its impact on NOy mixing ratios at the Northern Hemisphere 500 mb level is comparable to that of fossil fuel combustion.


Item #d92jan65

"Intercomparison of Tunable Diode Laser and Gas Filter Correlation Measurements of Ambient Carbon Monoxide," A. Fried (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), B. Henry et al., Atmos. Environ., 25A(10), 2277-2284, 1991. In ambient air, results from the two instruments agreed within their combined uncertainties.


Item #d92jan66

Four items from Atmos. Environ., 25A(9), 1991:

"Measurements of Ozone and Other Radiatively Active Gases at Mace Head in the Republic of Ireland," P.G. Simmonds (Dept. Geochem., Univ. Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK), R.G. Derwent, 1795-1808.

Time series of ozone, methane, nitrous oxide and halocarbons measured on the west coast showed significant correlations between individual trace gases and elevated concentrations during periods of substantial regional pollution (SE to E winds). Magnitudes of anthropogenic source strengths were estimated based on halocarbon concentrations.

"Modelling the Role of Nitrogen Oxides, Hydrocarbons and Carbon Monoxide in the Global Formation of Tropospheric Oxidants," A.M. Hough (AEA Environ., Harwell Lab., Oxfordshire OX11 0RA, UK), C.E. Johnson, 1819-1835.

A new zonally averaged 2-D chemical-transport model of the lower atmosphere showed that about one-third of the ozone formed in situ is anthropogenic, with over half from industrial society and much of the rest from biomass burning and methane emitted from paddy fields. Since reducing NOx also increases the concentration of methane, it is necessary to control the emissions of a wide range of species to reduce the budget of photochemical oxidants.

"Perturbations to Tropospheric Oxidants 1985-2035: 2. Calculations of Hydrogen Peroxide in Chemically Coherent Regions," A.M. Thompson (Code 916, NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), M.A. Huntley, R.W. Stewart, 1837-1850.

Uses a 1-D model to assess the impact of rising emissions of NO, CH4 and CO as well as climate changes on levels of HO2 and H1O2 both globally and in chemically coherent regions (urban, marine midlatitude, etc.). Globally averaged increases in surface concentrations of 12% for H1O2 and 18% for O3 are possible. With additional global warming (increased water vapor) or stratospheric O3 depletion, O3 will increase less but H1O2 could increase as much as 150% above present levels in some regions.

"Modelling the Response of Tropospheric Trace Species to Changing Source Gas Concentrations," K.S. Law (Dept. Chem., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), J.A. Pyle, 1863-1871.

Used a time-dependent photochemical model to examine the effects of perturbed CH4, CO, nonmethane hydrocarbons and NOx on the composition of the troposphere. A simulation of the atmosphere for the middle of the next century predicts large increases in O3 but only slight changes in OH and H1O2.


Item #d92jan67

Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 96(D8), Aug. 20, 1991:

"Determination of the Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Methane and Its Application in the Antarctic," D.C. Lowe (Dept. Scientific & Industrial Res., Nuclear Sci. Group, POB 31-312, Lower Hutt, New Zealand), C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer et al., 15,455-15,467. Describes a procedure capable of resolving the small secular trend in the isotopic ratios of methane in clean atmospheres.

"A Two-Dimensional Study of Ethane and Propane Oxidation in the Troposphere," M. Kanakidou (M. Planck Inst. Chem., Div. Atmos. Chem., Postfach 3060, W-6500 Mainz, Ger.), H.B. Singh et al., 15,395-15,413. In this modeling study the influence of ethane and propane on the calculated mean NOx mixing ratio and hence O3 and OH concentrations is found to be limited.


Item #d92jan68

"The Production of Carbon Monoxide by the Homogeneous NOx-Induced Photooxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Troposphere," A.P. Altshuller (AREAL, EPA, MD-80, Res. Triangle Pk. NC 27711), J. Atmos. Chem., 13(2), 155-182, Aug. 1991.

Reaction mechanisms of products and other data were used to calculate yields of CO from the products of the homogeneous atmospheric photooxidation of emissions of hydrocarbons and other volatile organic compounds. The annual production of CO, from combustion and from the photooxidation of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of VOCs, is estimated for the contiguous U.S.


Item #d92jan69

"Ab Initio Studies of the Kinetic Isotope Effect of the CH4 + OH [dot] Atmospheric Reaction," A.C. Lasaga (Dept. Geol., Yale Univ., New Haven CT 06511), G.V. Gibbs, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18(7), 1217-1220, July 1991.

High level ab initio quantum mechanical calculations are made for a destruction mechanism of methane, and compared with experimental data. Results support a bigger effect of biomass burning on the methane global budget than previously thought.


Item #d92jan70

Special Issue: Papers in Meteorol. Geophys., 42(1), Mar. 1991 contains four papers with results from Japan's INSTAC (International Strato/Tropospheric Air Chemistry) Program, including aircraft measurements of CH4, O3, NO and light nonmethane hydrocarbons. Preface is authored by Y. Sugimura (Meteor. Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan).


Item #d92jan71

"Atmospheric Constituent Inversion Problems: Implications for Baseline Monitoring," I.G. Enting (Div. Atmos. Res., CSIRO, Pvt. Bag 1, Mordialloc, Vic. 3195, Australia), G.N. Newsam, J. Atmos. Chem., 11(1), 69-87, 1990. Since most models for determining sources and sinks of atmospheric constituents lead to ill-posed inverse problems, mathematical analysis of these problems needs to be undertaken to determine the extent to which a given set of data contains usable information about source/sink processes.

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