February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 7, JULY 1992
SOURCES AND SINKS
Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels
and Electricity. Vol. 1. Main Text (ANL/ESD/TM-22, Vol. 1), M.A. DeLuchi
(Inst. Transport. Studies, Univ. California, Davis CA 95616), 142 pp., Nov.
1991. Available to U.S. DOE and contractors from Off. Sci. Tech. Info., Oak
Ridge Nat. Lab., POB 62, Oak Ridge TN 37831; others, order from NTIS. Vol. 2,
consisting of 19 appendices that provide detailed explanations and tables for
their respective subject areas and a complete list of references, is available
in draft form from the author, as is a four-page memo dated April 1992
explaining the implications for report results of recent revisions in global
warming potentials of greenhouse gases. These revisions are documented in the
1992 update of the IPCC assessment (see first entry in Reports/General Interest,
this issue--July 1992).
Estimates full fuel cycle emissions, for CO2 and other greenhouse gases,
resulting from such factors as end use, compression or liquefaction of gaseous
transportation fuels, distribution and production, feedstock transport and
recovery, motor vehicle manufacture, maintenance of transportation systems,
manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and land use changes
resulting from using biomass-derived fuels. CO2 emissions from fuel combustion
account for the bulk of total greenhouse gas emissions, but emissions of other
greenhouse gases can be responsible for a large part of the total global warming
potential of energy use, or may be more important than CO2. For most energy
options, the analysis is sensitive to assumptions about several factors (like
chemical composition of fuels, emission standards, emission control
technologies, origination of feedstocks), which can be chosen to produce results
with a wide range--from favorable to unfavorable.
Constraining the Atmospheric Carbon Budget: A Preliminary Assessment
(CSIRO Res. Tech. Paper 25), I.G. Enting (CSIRO, Div. Atmos. Res., Pvt. Bag 1,
Mordialloc, Vic. 3195, Australia), 28 pp., 1992.
Presents initial budget estimates to provide base cases against which to
measure improvements in knowledge; guides modeling studies that explore the
range of uncertainty in the atmospheric carbon budget; presents a formalism for
application to other species. The budgets illustrate the need for recognizing
the secular change when analyzing atmospheric carbon budgets and the need to
consider the error structure.
Workshop Statement: Natural Sinks of CO2 (Palmas Del Mar, Puerto
Rico; Feb. 24-27, 1992), J. Wisniewski, A.E. Lugo, Eds., 6 pp., 1992.
Proceedings will be available from Kluwer Acad. Pubs., POB 322, 3300 AH
Dordrecht, Neth., and 101 Philip Dr., Norwell MA 02061.
Sponsored by U.S. EPA, U.S. DOE et al. Participants reached consensus on
several points. Among them are that a vast number of natural and managed
ecosystems are currently accreting carbon, and this accretion may account for
the so-called "missing carbon"; appropriate ecosystem management can
enhance net carbon storage and is compatible with conservation of biodiversity,
sustainable land use, energy conservation and economic development. Recommends
studies on: carbon reservoirs, fluxes and management; CO2 fertilization; and
Effects of Forest Management on Soil Carbon Storage (NCASI Tech.
Bull. 628), D.W. Johnson (Dept. Wildl., Univ. Nevada, Reno, NV), 41 pp., Mar.
1992. Nat. Council for the Paper Indus. on Air & Stream Improvement (NCASI),
260 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016 (212-532-9000).
Presents a literature review of soil carbon storage in managed forests,
covering recent publications relating to global change, and older studies of
soil change resulting from harvest, site preparation, fire, fertilization,
species conversion and stand development. Reported losses of soil carbon after
harvesting and reforestation were generally negligible, or could be recovered
more quickly than expected after reforestation.
Greenhouse Gases from Small-Scale Combustion in Developing Countries:
A Pilot Study in Manila (EPA/600/R-92/005), K.R. Smith (Alliance Technol.
Corp., Chapel Hill, N.C.), R.A. Rasmussen et al., 75 pp., Jan. 1992. NTIS:
Measured the emissions of over 90 carbon and halocarbon compounds emitted
from cookstoves fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene, charcoal and
wood. Emissions of nearly every major component were least for LPG and greatest
for unprocessed solid fuels. The greenhouse impact of non-CO2 greenhouse gas
emissions may rival or exceed those from CO2 alone, when weighted.
Landbouw en broeikaseffect (Rep. 84-1992), 1992, approx. $16. In
Dutch; English summary. Order from Ctr. Agric. Environ. (CLM), POB 10015, 3505
AA Utrecht, Neth. (tel: 31 30 441 301).
Estimates that Dutch agriculture and horticulture contribute 12% of the
total emission of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands, but this could be reduced
by 20% within ten years. Cattle farming generates the most greenhouse gases; CO2
emissions mainly result from the energy intensive production of concentrates and
The Carbon Dioxide Report for Canada 1990, 1992, Can.$25
(Can.$15, nongovernment organizations). Order from Friends of the Earth, 701-251
Laurier Ave. W, Ottawa, Ont. K1P 5J6, Can. (613-230-3352).
Canada's CO2 emissions in 1990 were 6.5% lower in 1990 than in 1989, but
they fell despite government policies, rather than because of them. The reasons
are that: (1) economic recession impacted Canadian industry; (2) improved river
flows in Saskatchewan allowed more use of hydroelectric power; and (3) Ontario
Hydro replaced Canadian coal-fired electricity with that purchased from the U.S.
Report of the Technical Meeting on Natural Sources and Sinks of
Greenhouse Gases (Downsview, Ont., Feb. 5-7, 1991), 114 pp., 1991. Available
at no charge from Pam Kertland, Atmos. Environ. Serv. (COCO), 4905 Dufferin St.,
Downsview, Ont. M3H 5T4, Can. In English; forward and general statement of the
meeting in French.
Addressed the state of Canadian research. The sinks and pathways of carbon
are generally less well-known than are sources, with the greatest uncertainties
relating to the dynamics of carbon cycling in soils, oceans and their biota.
With coastlines on three oceans, Canada may have a unique opportunity to examine
terrestrial and oceanic aspects of the carbon cycle. PERD (Panel on Energy
Research and Development) resources would be best used in process research on
energy-related greenhouse gas cycles.
Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions with Alternative Fuels, D.C.
Fisher, 1991, $10. Order from Environ. Defense Fund, 1616 P St. NW, Washington
DC 20036 (202-387-3500).
Although alternate fuels (compressed natural gas; ethanol from biomass,
methanol from coal, natural gas or biomass; and electricity from various
sources) generally pollute less than gasoline or diesel, they may produce more
greenhouse gases. For example, biomass can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up
to 70%, but the only currently available biomass fuel, ethanol from corn,
actually increases greenhouse gas emissions 25% above gasoline because of the
fossil fuels and nitrogen fertilizers used to grow corn.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations