February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1992
GENERAL INTEREST AND POLICY
"A Mechanism to Reconcile Equity and Efficiency in Global Climate
Protection: International Carbon Emission Offsets," J. Swisher (Dept. Civil
Eng., Stanford Univ., Stanford CA 94305), G. Masters, Ambio, 21(2),
154-159, Apr. 1992.
Proposes a mechanism that would transfer resources from nations with
unfulfilled responsibility for climate protection to those with unexploited
opportunities for the same. Using the example of a large electric utility in the
southeastern U.S., compares the marginal costs of reducing its CO2 emissions to
the cost of supporting forestry projects in Central America, which would have
added socioeconomic benefits at the local level.
"Climate Change and the Planetary Trust," P.G. Brown (Sch.
Public Affairs, Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), Energy Policy,
20(3), 208-222, Mar. 1992.
Discusses three alternative models of responsibility for climate change: one
is market-based and concerns maximizing the present discounted value of
consumption; the second is based on the tragedy of the commons. But most
promising is the fiduciary trust framework, based on the obligation to preserve
the integrity of ecological systems. Discusses features of such a trust, and
finds that the costs of implementation should be within reach.
"Psychological Dimensions of Global Environmental Change," P.C.
Stern (Nat. Res. Council, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington DC 20418), Ann.
Rev. Psychol., 43, 269-302, 1992.
Extensive review which discusses the place of psychology in global change
research and identifies an interdisciplinary research agenda. Emphasizes
research on environmental attitudes, the determinants of specific human
activities such as energy conservation, and ways people may relate to change.
Interdisciplinary research is essential.
"Global Warming Debate in the USA: The Clash between Scientists on
Policy Projections," W. Goldstein (Rockefeller Coll. Public Affairs, State
Univ. New York, Albany NY 12222), V.A. Mohnen, Futures, 24(1),
37-53, Jan.-Feb. 1992.
Science policy has become highly controversial, and projections of global
warming could divide the scientific community along political lines. The rigor
of scientific inquiry must never be relaxed. If scientists exaggerate the
certainty of projections, they will be accused of camouflaging uncertainty with
misplaced arrogance (as many U.S. scientists have learned) and will lose popular
appeal as well as political endorsement.
Two items from Global Environ. Change, 1(5), Dec. 1991:
"International Reductions of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An Equitable and
Efficient Approach," B.D. Solomon (Off. Atmos. & Indoor Air Prog., ANR
445, U.S. EPA, Washington DC 20460), D.R. Ahuja, 343-350.
Proposes two commercial energy protocols for consideration in climate treaty
negotiations. One would link international trading in emission allowances for
greenhouse gases to a country's historic per capita carbon emissions; the other
would require inefficient countries to make steady improvements in energy
efficiency or in the use of lower carbon fuels, as their economies develop.
"Managing the Indus River Basin in Light of Climate Change: Four
Conceptual Approaches," J.L. Wescoat (Dept. Geog., Univ. Colorado, Boulder
CO 80309), 381-395.
Reports on a multidisciplinary study of four distinct approaches: climate
scenario assessment, the study of critical water management problems, historic
antecedents and analogies, and Muslim political reconstruction. While the first
is emphasized by current scientific research, the last three are more important
for water managers. Discusses prospects for coordinating these approaches.
"Global Change: Past, Present and Future," T.F. Malone (St.
Joseph College, 1678 Asylum Ave., West Hartford CT 06117), Tellus, 43AB(4),
182-187, Aug.-Sep. 1991.
(One of several papers in an issue honoring Professor Bert Bolin; titles
only were listed in GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE DIGEST, Prof. Pubs./Tellus
Special Issue, Apr. 1992). Social processes must be considered along with
natural phenomena as a determining factor in global change. The 1992 U.N.
Conference on Environment and Development can encourage a dynamic and creative
interaction among science, technology and society.
Two items from J. Air Waste Mgmt. Assoc., 42(4), Apr.
"The Total Greenhouse Warming Potential of Technical Systems: Analysis
for Decision Making," R.T. Ellington (Sci. & Public Policy, Univ.
Oklahoma, Norman OK 73019), M. Meo, D.E. Baugh, 422-428.
Proposes three improvements for existing methods of comparing greenhouse
impacts: (1) use a comprehensive systems perspective; (2) describe the entire
system life cycle including aftereffects; and (3) use the Warming Forcing Factor
and Index described here to relate greenhouse effects of individual emissions to
useful output. Discusses application to a biomass-to-methanol vehicle fuel
"Reducing the Use of Ozone Depleting Chemicals: The Irvine, California,
Ordinance," M.S. Brown (Environ. Affairs Off., City of Irvine, POB 19575,
Irvine CA 92713), A. Hart, 429-432.
An ordinance passed by the city in 1989 emphasizes education and technical
assistance over enforcement; a 36% reduction in emissions occurred the first
year it took effect (1990). There is no evidence of adverse impacts on local
businesses. It is possible for local governments to encourage greater reductions
than would otherwise occur with national and international controls.
Three items from a special section in Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 89(3),
Feb. 1, 1992, containing papers from a May 1991 colloquium held at the Academy:
"Industrial Ecology: Concepts and Approaches," L.W. Jelinski
(Cornell Univ., Ithaca NY 14853), T.E. Graedel et al., 793-797. Introduces other
papers in the section on industrial ecology, a new approach to industrial design
and manufacturing strategies which seeks to optimize the total materials cycle
from virgin material to ultimate disposal of a product.
"Investigations of the Environmental Acceptability of Fluorocarbon
Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons," M. McFarland (Dupont Co.,
Fluorochem., B-13230, Wilmington DE 19898), 807-811. Provides an overview of the
challenges faced by industry, regulators and society in continuing to meet
societal needs and consumer demands, while reducing risk to the environment
without compromising consumer or worker safety.
"Approaches to Eliminating Chlorofluorocarbon Use in Manufacturing,"
W.S. Boyhan (Environ. Safety & Eng., AT&T Bell Labs., 131 Morristown
Rd., Rm. B-2218, Basking Ridge NJ 07920), 812-814. Documents the steps AT&T
has taken to reach its goal of 100% phase-out of CFCs by the end of 1994.
Two-part article in Power Engineering by R. Perhac (Elec. Power
Res. Inst., POB 10412, Palo Alto CA 94303), reviewing the history of the
National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) and the lessons it holds
for climate change policy and research. Reprints available as a report from EPRI
(see Reports/Gen. Interest, this GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE DIGEST issue--June
"Making Credible Science Usable: Lessons from CAA, NAPAP," 38-40,
Sep. 1991. Examines why NAPAP, which produced much very good science, did not
have more influence on Clean Air Act legislation passed near the conclusion of
NAPAP. Concludes that to have an impact on policy, research must be demonstrably
credible as well as useful to decision makers.
"Usable Science: Lessons from Acid Rain Legislation, NAPAP,"
26-29, Oct. 1991. Enumerates the mistakes made by the electric power industry in
reacting to concern over acid rain. For the greenhouse gas issue, the industry
should not underestimate the issue's importance and the public perception of it;
it should arrive at a common policy position, and it should take positive
action. The latter can include stabilization of CO2 output for at least the next
"Environmental Auditing for Global Effects," J. Cairns Jr.
(Ctr. Environ. & Haz. Mater. Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg
VA 24061), Environ. Auditor, 2(4), 187-195, 1991.
Even though this is an era of unprecedented global change, information
feedback loops explaining the nature of environmental changes have not been
established. Proposes an overall strategy for auditing global change and
provides illustrative attributes that might be used effectively at different
levels of biological organization.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations