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FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1992
MOUNT PINATUBO ERUPTION
Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(2), Jan. 24, 1992, contains a
special section with 17 papers on the stratospheric and climatic impact of the
June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, which is expected to
influence ozone depletion chemistry and global mean temperature trends. A
prologue by M.P. McCormick (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665) on p. 149 introduces
"Global Tracking of the SO2 Clouds from the June 1991 Mount Pinatubo
Eruptions," G.J.S. Bluth (Univ. Space Res. Assoc., NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt
MD 20771) et al., 151-154. Satellite measurements indicate a much larger SO2
cloud and possible climatic response than from the El Chichón eruption.
"SAGE II Measurements of Early Pinatubo Aerosols," M.P. McCormick
(NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), R.E. Veiga, 155-158. Aerosol production is
estimated at 20-30 megatons, well above that of El Chichón.
"Monitoring the Mt. Pinatubo Aerosol Layer with NOAA/11 AVHRR Data,"
L.L. Stowe (NOAA/NESDIS, E/R A11, Rm. 711, WWB, Washington DC 20233) et al.,
159-162. Once the aerosol is distributed globally, a global cooling contribution
of at least 0.5° C is estimated over the next two to four years.
"Latitudinal Survey of Spectral Optical Depths of the Pinatubo Volcanic
Cloud-Derived Particle Sizes, Columnar Mass Loadings, and Effects of Planetary
Albedo," F.P.J. Valero (NASA-Ames, Moffett Field CA 94035), P. Pilewskie,
163-166. Mid-visible optical depths show the cloud is among the thickest ever
"Airborne Lidar Observations of the Pinatubo Volcanic Plume," D.M.
Winker (address above), M.T. Osborn, 167-170. Total particle mass is estimated
to be about 8 megatons 27 days after the eruption, with about half the original
SO2 converted to aerosol.
"Preliminary Analysis of Observations of the Pinatubo Volcanic Plume
with a Polarization-Sensitive Lidar," D.M. Winker (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA
23665), M.T. Osborn, 171-174.
"Differential SO2 Column Measurements of the Mt. Pinatubo Volcanic
Plume," R.M. Hoff (Ctr. Atmos. Res. Exper., Atmos. Environ. Serv., RR 1,
Egbert, Ont. L0L 1N0, Can.), 175-178. Measurements using a correlation
spectrometer are consistent with a one-month time constant for conversion of SO2
"Airborne Observations of SO2, HCl and O3 in the Stratospheric Plume of
the Pinatubo Volcano in July 1991," W.G. Mankin (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO
80307) et al., 179-182. A high resolution infrared spectrometer indicated a much
smaller increase of HCl than seen following El Chichón.
"Mt. Pinatubo SO2 Column Measurements from Mauna Loa," A. Goldman
(Dept. Phys., Univ. Denver, Denver CO 80208) et al., 183-186. Observations are
consistent with the dispersion of the SO2 cloud and rapid conversion of SO2
vapor into aerosol particles.
"Early Lidar Observations of the June 1991 Pinatubo Eruption Plume at
Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii," T.E. DeFoor (Mauna Loa Observatory,
ERL/NOAA, Hilo HI 96721) et al., 187-190.
"The Pinatubo Eruption Cloud Observed by Lidar at
Garmish-Partenkirchen," H. Jäger (Fraunhofer Inst. Atmos. Environ.
Res., IFU, D-8100 Garmish-Partenkirchen, Ger.), 191-194.
"Observations of Pinatubo Ejecta over Boulder, Colorado, by Lidars of
Three Different Wavelengths," M.J. Post (Wave Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway,
Boulder CO 80303) et al., 195-198.
"Balloonborne Measurements of the Pinatubo Aerosol Size Distribution
and Volatility at Laramie, Wyoming, during the Summer of 1991," T. Deshler
(Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071) et al., 199-202. Results
indicate rapid conversion of SO2 to H1SO4 and subsequent droplet growth, with
homogeneous or ion nucleation the most likely aerosol production mechanism.
"Electron Microscope Studies of Mt. Pinatubo Aerosol Layers over
Laramie, Wyoming, during Summer 1991," P.J. Sheridan (CIRES, Univ.
Colorado, Boulder CO 80309) et al., 203-206. Results indicate that the volcanic
H1SO4 aerosol in the stratospheric layers formed through homogeneous nucleation.
"Stratospheric Temperature Increases due to Pinatubo Aerosols," K.
Labitzke (Meteor. Inst., Free Univ. Berlin, Dietrich-Schaferweg 6-8, D-1000
Berlin 41, Ger.), M.P. McCormick, 207-210. Localized temperature increases as
large as 3.5° C were observed at some locations between the equator and
30° N, because of absorption of radiation by new aerosols.
"Observations of Depleted Stratospheric NO2 Following the Pinatubo
Volcanic Eruption," P.V. Johnston (DSIR Phys. Sci., Lauder, Central Otago
9182, New Zealand) et al., 211-213. The depletion observed appears to indicate
heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 on sulfate aerosol surfaces, which
could accelerate ozone destruction by chlorine compounds in the presence of
"Potential Climate Impact of Mount Pinatubo Eruption," J.
Hansen (NASA Goddard Inst. Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10025), A.
Lacis et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(2), 215-218, Jan. 24,
A preliminary assessment using the GISS global climate model indicates that
stratospheric aerosols created by the eruption will cause a dramatic but
temporary break in recent global warming trends. The cooling will peak in late
1992, and should overwhelm global warming associated with an El Niño that
appears to be developing. Discusses the effect of the predicted global cooling
on such practical matters as the severity of the Soviet winter and the dates of
"Simulation of the Pinatubo Aerosol Cloud in General Circulation
Model," B.A. Boville (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), J.R. Holton, P.W.
Mote, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18(12), 2281-2284, Dec. 1991.
A high-resolution stratospheric version of the NCAR climate model with an
annual cycle was used to simulate global transport and dispersion. The bulk of
the cloud dispersed zonally to form a continuous belt in longitude, remaining
confined to the tropics centered near the 20 mb level for the entire 180-day
run. A small amount was mixed into the upper troposphere of both hemispheres.
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