February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 5, MAY 1992
IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE: AGRICULTURE
"Implications of Changes in Climatic Averages and Variability on
Food Production Opportunities in Ontario, Canada," M. Brklacich (Land
Resour. Ctr., Agric. Canada, Ottawa, Ont. K1A 0C6, Can.), B. Smit, Clim.
Change, 20(1), 1-21, 1992.
Explores implications of altered temperatures and precipitation at farm,
regional and provincial levels. A doubling in CO2 would contribute to extended
frost-free seasons and possibly increase annual precipitation variability.
Longer frost-free seasons during low precipitation could threaten the security
of the province's food sup-ply.
"The Potential Effects of Climatic Change on Agricultural Insect
Pests," J.H. Porter (Atmos. Impacts Res., Sch. Geog., Univ. Birmingham,
Birmingham B15 2TT, UK), M.L. Parry, T.R. Carter, Agric. For. Meteor.,
57(1-3), 221-240, Dec. 1991.
Illustrates the effects of increased global temperatures on insect pests by
estimating the response of the European corn borer to climatic changes projected
by a general circulation model. Northward shifts in the potential distribution
of the borer of up to 1220 km and growth of an additional generation are
indicated. Priorities for further research are discussed.
Two items from Agric. Systems, 37(4), 1991:
"Climate Change, Winter Wheat Yield and Soil Erosion on the English
South Downs," D.T. Favismortlock (Brighton Polytech., Mithras House, Lewes
Rd., Brighton BN2 4AT, E. Sussex, UK), R. Evans et al., 415-433.
Uses an erosion-productivity model to evaluate direct CO2 stimulation and
related climatic impacts. Yield increases are predicted under the majority of
climatic scenarios used, but they are unlikely to be realized in practice due to
increased pest competition. Increased erosion is predicted for wetter scenarios.
"Impacts of Future Climatic Change on Hungarian Crop Production--An
Application of Crop Growth Simulation Models," Z. Bacsi (Intl. Fertilizer
Develop. Ctr., Div. Agroecon., POB 2040, Muscle Shoals AL 35662), P.K. Thornton,
J.B. Dent, 435-450.
Describes a method for studying changes in wheat and maize production, which
analyzes farm-level impacts and possible management adjustments, then identifies
regional and national changes in agroclimatic potential and the effects of
possible adjustments. The method is applied to a cereal-producing region of
"Sensitivity of Evapotranspiration and Soil Moisture in Wheat Fields
to Changes in Climate and Direct Effects of Carbon Dioxide," I.S. Kuchment
(Acad. Sci., Inst. Water Problems, 13-3 Sadovo Chernogriazskaya, Moscow 103064,
Russia), Hydrol. Sci. J. (J. des. Sci. Hydrologiques), 36(6),
631-643, 1991. In English.
A physically-based model of moisture transfer in the soil-canopy-atmosphere
system applied to data from wheat fields shows that estimates of
evapotranspiration responses to warming must consider the direct physiological
effects of enhanced CO2. Under some circumstances, decreased evapotranspiration
can be expected, instead of the increase predicted by several models which
neglect the direct CO2 effects.
"The Sensitivity of Soil Moisture Reserves to Precipitation Amount
and Frequency under Current and Future Climates," J.A. Dyer (Resour.
Environ. Sect., Agric. Canada, Ottawa, K1A 0C5, Can.), Clim. Bull., 25(2),
103-117, Aug. 1991.
Examination of relationships involving monthly total precipitation,
precipitation frequency and soil moisture shows that a large amount of variation
in soil moisture is due solely to changes in the frequency of days with
"CO2-Induced Climatic Changes and Irrigation-Water Requirements,"
R.G. Allen (Dept. Agric. Eng., Utah State Univ., Logan UT 84322), F.N. Gichuki,
C. Rosenweig, J. Water Resour. Planning Mgmt., 117(2), 157-178,
Changes in irrigation-water (IR) requirements for the U.S. Great Plains were
evaluated using results of doubled CO2 GCM experiments and a water balance-IR
model. Increased IR requirements were predicted as a result of increased
evaporation and changes in precipitation patterns, especially for alfalfa.
Decreases or only modest increases were predicted for winter wheat and corn.
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