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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 10, OCTOBER 1992

REPORTS...
ENERGY/CO2 POLICY; ENERGY USE


Item #d92oct62

The International Energy Agency (IEA) Technology Information Exchange System of the OECD offers access to data and information on energy technologies to reduce and control greenhouse gases, for developing countries and those in transition as well as for OECD countries. A brochure is available.

The following reports are for sale by OECD:

Global Energy: The Changing Outlook, 1992. Examines recent developments in energy demand and supply in non-OECD countries and outlines IEA projections for those regions to 2005. Considers the implications of these developments for the way in which OECD countries can meet energy security and environmental objectives.

Coal Information 1992, Aug. 1992, FF525/$112. Includes current world coal market trends and long-term prospects, demand, trade, production etc. OECD coal demand is expected to grow 1.3% between 1991 and 2000, while total demand will grow 12%.

Electricity Supply in the OECD, Apr. 1992, FF450/$96. Examines key challenges facing the industry, including meeting growing demand while achieving environmental goals.

Energy in Non-OECD Countries: Selected Topics 1991, 1991. Examines recent energy-related changes in developing countries and the European economies in transition, including energy-related environmental problems in the developing world.

Guidelines for the Economic Analysis of Renewable Energy Technology Applications, 1991. Presents detailed methods for estimating costs of a range of renewable energy technologies, with examples. Based on an international workshop.

Fuel Efficiency of Passenger Cars, 1991. Examines factors influencing fuel demand, pricing, taxation, efficiency targets and regulations, and the impact of policies to limit emissions. Summarizes national transport policies.

Energy Policies of IEA Countries--1990 Review, 1991. One in a series of annual reviews, with energy and environment as a major topic.

Annual Report on Energy Policies, France 1991, 1992. This first review by the IEA for France, which joined the IEA in 1992, finds that efforts to reduce CO2 emissions must be strengthened to meet the country's declared emission reduction goal.

Contact the Economics Department at the Paris OECD address about the following working papers:

Energy Prices, Taxes and Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Econ. Dept. Working Paper 106), P. Hoeller, M. Wallin, 1992.

Energy Taxation and Price Distortions in Fossil Fuel Markets: Some Implications for Climate Change Policy (Econ. Dept. Working Paper 110), P. Hoeller, J. Coppel, 1992.

Global 2100: Alternative Scenarios for Reducing Carbon Emissions (Econ. Dept. Working Paper 111), A.S. Manne, 1992.

The Welfare Effects of Fossil Carbon Restrictions: Results from a Recursively Dynamic Trade Model (Econ. Dept. Working Paper 112), T. Rutherford (Econ. Dept., Univ. Colorado), 1992.


Item #d92oct63

Degrees of Change: Steps towards an Ontario Global Warming Strategy, Ont. Global Warming Coalition, 158 pp., 1991. NTIS: MIC-92-02216; $43. Sponsored by Ont. Min. Environ., Ont. Min. Energy (Toronto).

Surveys the most promising policy measures for reducing CO2 emissions, the primary market and institutional barriers to them, and reforms needed to overcome these barriers. Considers cost-effectiveness, and examines a case study involving commercializing new natural gas cogeneration technologies.


Item #d92oct64

CO2 Reduction Consensus. A Conceptual Framework for Global CO2 Reduction Targets: The Importance of Energy Technology Development (ECN-RX-91-093), P.A. Oken (Netherland Energy Res. Foundation, Petten), 25 pp., Dec. 1991. NTIS: DE92-790187; $17.

The recommendation of the IPCC Science Group to reduce CO2 emissions by 60% is considered to be the result of a consensus process. A conceptual framework for this process is constructed, and various arguments discussed that lead to higher or lower CO2 reduction recommendations. For the transport sector and coal power generation, demonstrates that greater than 60% reductions are possible through new technologies.


Item #d92oct65

Summary of the Presentations at the International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers (LBL-30850), J. Sathaye (Lawrence Berkeley Lab.), N. Goldman, 50 pp., June 1991. NTIS: DE92-004171; $17.

Reports on a workshop held to discuss (1) the feasibility of incorporating efficiency improvements and fuel switching into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries, and (2) costs and benefits of reducing energy-related CO2 emissions generated by developing countries.


Item #d92oct66

IEA ETSAP studies: The following brief articles appeared in recent issues of the International Energy Agency's ETSAP News, describing work of IEA's Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP). Contact Tom Kram, ESC/Global Issues, Neth. Energy Res. Foundation, POB 1, 1755 ZG Petten, Neth. (tel: +31-2246-4347); or newsletter editor Douglas Hill, 15 Anthony Ct., Huntington NY 11743 (516-421-5544).

"CO2 Emissions Reduction Costly to Switzerland," July 1992 issue. With most of its energy generated by nonfossil sources, Switzerland will find further reductions in CO2 emissions extraordinarily expensive. The country can best contribute to the goal of reducing global warming if it is also credited with reductions in other greenhouse gases.

"A Second Look at Sweden's Energy Future," May 1992 issue. A revised analysis using the MARKAL model, which assumes higher economic growth, finds that such growth is incompatible with both CO2 emission reductions and a phaseout of nuclear power.

"Norway's Lessons for New MARKAL Users," May 1992 issue. Conveys the experience of development of a PC-based MARKAL energy model in Norway, which is now being used to address policy questions such as carbon taxes for that country.


Item #d92oct67

Available from American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, 2140 Shattuck Ave., S. 202, Berkeley CA 94704 (510-549-9914). Add $2 handling.

Electricity End-Use Efficiency: Experience with Technologies, Markets and Policies throughout the World, M. Levine, H. Geller et al., 125 pp., 1992, $25. Prepared with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. Describes status of technologies, barriers to their implementation and policies to encourage them.

Opportunities for Improving End-Use Electricity Efficiency in India, S. Nadel, V. Kothari, S. Gopinath, 245 pp., 1991, $35. Prepared for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the World Bank. Shows how India can reduce capital requirements by reallocating some funds from new power plants to efficiency investments.

Feebates for Fuel Economy: Market Incentives for Encouraging Consumers to Buy Efficient Vehicles, J. DeCicco, H. Geller, J. Morrill, 40 pp., 1992, $6. Discusses the use of new vehicle purchase price incentives to promote the fuel economy of cars and light trucks, and examines options and the expected impact of incentives.

Savings from CAFE: Projections of the Future Oil Savings from Light Vehicle Fuel Economy Legislation, J. DiCicco, 25 pp., 1992, $5. Analyzes strengthened corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, including factors that can affect their success, with specific projections for recent proposals in Congress.

Options for Reducing Oil Use by Light Vehicles: An Analysis of Technologies and Policy, M. Ross, M. Ledbetter, F. An, 100 pp., 1991, $25. Shows that the average rated fuel economy of new cars can be cost-effectively improved to 42 mpg in 10 years, through policies such as standards, the guzzler tax, and support for innovation.

Light Vehicles: Polices for Reducing Their Energy Use and Environmental Impacts, M. Ledbetter, M. Ross, 50 pp., 1991, $7. Topics include energy taxes, performance standards, technology policy and market weaknesses.


Item #d92oct68

Discussion papers from Resources for the Future, available for a nominal fee from RFF Publications, 1616 P St. NW, Washington DC 20036 (202-328-5086):

Accounting for Environmental Costs in Electric Utility Resource Supply Planning (QE92-14), A.M. Freeman III, D. Burtraw et al. The correct adjustment (or "adder") to be included for environmental damages, for least-social-cost utility planning now being attempted in many states, depends on the form of the environmental policy (taxation, tradable emissions permits, etc.). Discusses guidelines for state utility commissions, and problems with the process.

The Social Costs of Electricity: How Much of the Camel to Let into the Tent? (QE92-15), D. Burtraw, A.J. Krupnick. Considers how much, how far, and how fast regulators should incorporate social costing (which would include environmental costs) in utility oversight. Concludes that a cautious approach to social costing in the electric utility sector is preferable, but in the long run social costs should be broadly incorporated into decision making in all sectors of the economy.

Social Costing of Electricity and the Benefits of Demand-Side Management (QE92-19), K.L. Palmer.


Item #d92oct69

Available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington DC 20418 (800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313). Add $3 handling.

Nuclear Power: Technical and Institutional Options for the Future, NRC Comm. on Future Nuclear Power Development, June 1992, $27. If the U.S. is to retain nuclear power as an option, industry and government should make significant institutional changes. Identifies the most promising reactor technologies for the U.S. market, and proposes a modified program of research.

Automotive Fuel Economy: How Far Should We Go?, NRC Energy Eng. Board, 280 pp., Apr. 1992, $34.95. All classes of new cars and light trucks sold in the U.S. could have significantly higher levels of fuel economy by the year 2006, but technically achievable levels may not be practical from a societal standpoint. Practical standards must balance the benefits of improved fuel efficiency with other factors such as safety, the U.S. economy and employment.


Item #d92oct70

Some Environmental Policy Implications of Recycling Paper Products in Western Europe (Exec. Rep. 22), Y. Virtanen, S. Nilsson, 39 pp., July 1992. Intl. Inst. Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.

Results of this preliminary feasibility study indicate that the renewable character and high energy content of wood seem to make energy recovery more attractive than recycling under some conditions, since energy recovery minimizes the use of fossil fuels. A mix of both uses is probably best.


Item #d92oct71

The Going Rate: What It Really Costs to Drive, J. McKenzie, R. Dower, D. Chen, 60 pp., May 1992, $9.95. WRI (World Resour. Inst.) Publications, POB 4852, Hampden Sta., Baltimore MD 21211 (800-822-0504; 410-516-6963).

Estimates that the true costs of driving (including climate change) could easily add several dollars per gallon to the price of gasoline. Proposes badly needed reforms, which are unlikely to be accepted unless drivers pay more of the true costs.


Item #d92oct72

Available from U.S. Energy Association, 1620 Eye St., NW, S. 210, Washington DC 20006 (202-331-0415):

Getting Down to Business, 26 pp., Feb. 1992, $5. Proposes a concrete, five-point energy efficiency strategy for the U.S. that would enhance economic productivity while protecting the environment and lessening dependence on foreign oil.

Energy '92, May 1992. The sixth annual assessment of energy policy and prospects.


Item #d92oct73

Energy: From Crisis to Solution, H. Harvey, B. Keepin, 43 pp., Jan. 1991. The Energy Foundation, 75 Federal St., San Francisco CA 94107 (415-546-7400).

Describes the variety of problems that cannot be solved without addressing the underlying energy problem, and how energy efficiency is the key. Explains institutional barriers and obsolete regulations that impede energy efficiency, and how to overcome those hindering electric utilities, industry, buildings and transportation.


Item #d92oct74

Cooling Our Communities: A Guidebook on Tree Planting and Light-Colored Surfacing, H. Akbari et al. (U.S. EPA), Eds., 1992, $13. Supt. Documents, POB 371954, Pittsburgh PA 15250.

Includes a list of actions which, if taken by governments, corporations, utilities and educational institutions, could cut CO2 emissions by 1% by reducing the energy required for air conditioning.


Item #d92oct75

Lighting in Commercial Buildings, Energy Info. Admin. (U.S. Dept. Energy), Mar. 1992. For sale by U.S. Govt. Printing Off., Washington DC 20402 (202-783-3238).

The study shows that if lighting in all commercial buildings were changed to the best available equipment, the potential energy savings could range up to 72%. Includes detailed data on lighting in the commercial sector; does not analyze costs of conversion.


Item #d92oct76

Achieving Greater Energy Efficiency in Buildings: The Role of DOE's Office of Building Technologies, 105 pp., 1992, $20. Alliance to Save Energy, 1725 K St. NW, S. 509, Washington DC 20006 (202-857-0666).

Representatives from industry, utilities, universities and government recommend that DOE adopt a more cohesive and effective program structure, with 13 supporting initiatives centered on three themes: (1) making energy efficiency happen by promoting it and removing market barriers; (2) creating new technology options; and (3) educating energy professionals.


Item #d92oct77

The World Nuclear Industry Status Report: 1992, 1992. Contact Greenpeace Intl., c/o Canonbury Villas, Islington, London N1 2PN, UK (tel: 44-71-354-5100). For a 10-page summary contact Worldwatch Inst., 1776 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington DC 20036 (202-452-1999).

A survey conducted in conjunction with the Worldwatch Institute (U.S.) and World Information Service on Energy (Paris) shows that between 1991 and 1992, total installed nuclear generating capacity declined for the first time since the industry began in the 1950s. While the nuclear industry has tried to use concern over global warming to revive interest, the private sector has not responded.


Item #d92oct78

Assessment of Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues Related to the Use of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Topical Report, October 1990-November 1991, G.F. Baker, J.A. Draves, R.F. Klausmeier, 200 pp., Feb. 1992. Sponsored by Radian Corp. (Austin, Texas) and Gas Res. Inst. (Chicago, Illinois). NTIS: PB92-172436; $26.

Although substituting alternative fuels may improve local air quality in the U.S., the impact of candidate fuels (methanol, natural gas, LPG) should be considered in light of new concerns about global warming, acidic deposition and air toxics. There may also be health and safety risks associated with their use.


Item #d92oct79

Lessons from the Netherlands: Energy Efficiency Policies in Practice, 1992, 15. Assoc. for the Conservation of Energy, 9 Sherlock Mews, London W1M 3RH, UK.


Item #d92oct80

De haalbaarheid van de produktie van biomassa voor de Nederlandse energiehuishouding (The Feasibility of Biomass Production for Dutch Energy Economy), Netherlands Agency for Energy & Environ. (NOVEM) et al., May 1992. Available in Dutch from NOVEM, POB 8242, NL 3503 RE Utrecht, Neth.

The study was prompted by recent concern with overproduction in European agriculture as well as interest in reducing net CO2 emissions. Only multiyear crops, such as poplar, miscanthus (elephant grass) and straw, are appropriate for biomass energy sources. Sugar beets and wheat, favored by the Dutch Board of Agriculture, do not provide substantial CO2 savings.


Item #d92oct81

Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector, 1980-1988 (DOE/EIA-0552(80-88)), Energy Info. Admin. (U.S. Dept. Energy), 70 pp., Dec. 1991. NTIS: DE92-004501; $19.

Gives results from the manufacturing Energy Consumptions Survey. Energy intensity, defined as offsite-produced energy consumption per unit of output, declines as energy efficiency increases.


Item #d92oct82

Potential for Electricity Efficiency Improvements in the U.S. Residential Sector (LBL-30477), J.G. Koomey et al., (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, Calif.), 254 pp., July 1991. NTIS: DE92-000727; $35.

The most elaborate assessment to date of U.S. residential sector electricity improvements. Describes methods for creating supply curves of conserved energy, illustrates the subtleties of assessing the technical conservation potential, then presents the data and forecasts used, and results.


Item #d92oct83

Hydrogen: the Invisible Fire, 48 pp., 1991, $10. IRT Environment Inc., POB 10990, Aspen CO 81612 (303-927-3155).

Describes the potentially pivotal role hydrogen fuel could play in moving beyond the carbon-combustion economy, if it is produced using sustainable energy sources such as solar or hydro. Examines current hydrogen production and use patterns, and current research and development.

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