February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1992
GENERAL INTEREST AND POLICY
"Realistic Mitigation Options for Global Warming," E.S. Rubin
(Dept. Eng. & Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh PA 15213),
R.N. Cooper et al., Science, 257(5067), 148-149, 261-266, July
An analysis for the U.S. suggests that a variety of measures are available
to slow or reduce greenhouse emissions at low cost, perhaps even with a net cost
savings, with ancillary benefits such as reduction in urban air pollution. The
U.S. should focus first on energy conservation and efficiency measures that
reduce emissions of CO2 and methane. Experience with initial undertakings should
be used to resolve some of the current uncertainties regarding implementation
costs. Greenhouse warming should become a factor in planning the future energy
supply mix of the U.S. and other nations, using a systems approach that
considers interactions and externality costs across the entire fuel cycle. Since
many of the most cost-effective mitigation options may be found in developing
countries, assistance by developed nations to undertake these options may prove
less costly than measures aimed at their industrial domestic economies. The U.S.
and other nations should give much higher priority to the study of mitigation
and adaptation strategies, commensurate with the current research efforts in the
earth and environmental sciences.
Special issue: Environ. Policy and Law, 22(4),
Aug. 1992, is devoted to the U.N. Conference on Environment and Development in
Rio. It contains texts of several documents including the conventions on climate
change and biological diversity, and portions of others, as well as editorial
and other comments on the outcome of the conference. Published by IOS Press, Van
Diemenstraat 94, 1013 CN Amsterdam, Neth. (tel: +31 20-638-21-89; fax: +31
"Between Stockholm and Rio," Lord Zuckerman (Univ. E. Anglia,
Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), Nature, 358(6384), 273-276, July 23, 1992.
A lengthy analysis of progress toward solving global environmental problems
made in the interval between the two international conferences which addressed
"On an International Framework Convention on Climate Change: Global
Climate Change in the Context of Global Change," K. Ya. Kondratyev (Inst.
Lake Res., Acad. Sci., Sevastyanov Str. 9, 196199 St. Petersburg, Russia), Il
Nuovo Cimento, 15C(1), 87-97, Jan.-Feb. 1992.
Critically analyzes the recommendations of the IPCC report submitted to the
1990 Second World Climate Conference. The report is biased toward reducing
greenhouse gas emissions, and underplays the uncertainty of biospheric factors
such as the global carbon cycle and of socioeconomic threats to the environment
such as population growth. Discusses key components of a convention on climate
change, and the need for a Global Climate Observing System.
"A Serious Look at Geoengineering," D.W. Keith (Dept. Eng. &
Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh PA 15213), H. Dowlatabadi, Eos,
73(27), 289, 292-293, July 7, 1992.
Recent reports from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Office of
Technology Assessment have discussed deliberate intervention in the climate
system (geoengineering) to offset the effects of anthropogenic forcing of
climate, but options were not considered systematically. This article presents a
more systematic analysis and urges a balanced research program on geoengineering
options, such as ocean disposal of CO2, ocean fertilization, solar shields, and
injection of sulfur dioxide or particles into the stratosphere to increase
"Accelerating Ozone Layer Protection in Developing Countries,"
M. Munasinghe (World Bank, Washington, D.C.), K. King, World Development,
20(4), 609-618, Apr. 1992.
Developing countries abound with opportunities for early, low unit abatement
cost phase-out of ozone-depleting substances through well-designed policies and
projects. However, the Montreal Protocol tends to focus instead on project-level
incremental cost minimization, and does not provide incentives for early action.
Remedies to these shortcomings are proposed.
"Alternatives to CFCs and Global Warming: A Systems Approach to
Evaluating Net Contributions," S.K. Fischer, M. McFarland (DuPont
Chemicals, 1007 Market St., Wilmington DE 19898), MRS Bull. (Mater. Res.
Soc.), 17(3), 39-42, Mar. 1992.
CFCs are greenhouse gases, but evaluation of their overall contribution to
global warming should account for their contributions to energy efficiency in
many applications, which reduce warming by reducing emissions of CO2. Incorrect
decisions can be made if entire systems are not considered carefully in
evaluating impacts of alternative technologies; in some cases there are no
significant differences between alternative technologies that use substances
with differing global warming potentials.
"Chlorofluorocarbons and Ozone," M. McFarland (address immed.
above), J. Kaye, Photochem. & Photobiol., 55(6), 911-929,
A detailed review covering the sources of stratospheric chlorine,
projections of future chlorine concentrations, the photochemistry of
stratospheric ozone, and recent developments in the science of ozone chemistry
and in substitutes for CFCs.
"A Vision of Clean Air," A.H. Legge (Alberta Res. Council, 6815
8th St. NE, Calgary, Alberta T2H 7H7, Can.), T. Guidotti et al., J. Air
Waste Mgmt. Assoc., 42(7), 888-891, July 1992.
Presents a vision of the atmosphere whereby the legislative/regulatory view
and the scientific view are linked to achieve the goals of a healthy atmosphere
and sustainable development, as has been proposed for the Canadian province of
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Index of Abbreviations