February 28, 2007
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FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1992
ENERGY: ENERGY SOURCES AND USE
"Energy Sources: A Realistic Outlook," C. Starr (Elec. Power
Res. Inst., Palo Alto CA 94303), M.F. Searl, S. Alpert, Science, 256(5059),
981-987, May 15, 1992.
Historical energy trends projected to the middle of the next century
indicate a global energy demand about four times the current level, but
extensive energy conservation and energy-efficient systems could reduce this
value by half. Projects interactions of the principal factors influencing future
energy resource and technology options, particularly environmental concerns.
"Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Its Promise as a Total Resource
System," P.K. Takahashi (Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Univ. Hawaii,
Honolulu HI 96822), A. Trenka, Energy, 17(7), 657-668, July
This invited review gives a general description of the century-old concept
of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), briefly summarizes its research
history and progress, and outlines its expanding potential as a total resource
system. New applications for the deep, cold, nutrient-rich, pathogen-free
seawater produced, such as mariculture, freshwater production and air
conditioning, can be combined with electricity generation to improve prospects
for OTEC commercialization on Pacific islands.
"Measures for the Carbon Dioxide Problem and Utilization of Energy,"
T. Kojima (Fac. Eng., Seikei Univ., 3-3-1 Kichijoji Kitamachi, Musashino, Tokyo 180, Japan), Tetsu To Hagane -- J. of the Iron and Steel Inst. Japan, 78 (5), 697-705, May 1992. In Japanese.
"Making Better Use of Carbon," J.H. Walsh, CIM Bull.
"1. The Carbon Dioxide Problem and the Steel Insudtry," 85 (958), 164-169, Mar. 1992. A future niche for Canada in carbon-constrained world will be the efficient operation of energy-intensive industries. Explores a new possiblity for making better use of carbon by the coproduction of iron and liquid fuels.
"2. The Coproduction of Iron and Liquid Fuels," 85(959),
98-106, Apr. 1992. First examines the steel industry's conventional responses to
the future need to reduce CO2 emissions, then examines coproduction of iron and
liquid fuels as another option.
"Chemicals and Fuels from Biomass--Review and Preview," I.S.
Goldstein (Dept. Wood Sci., N. Carolina State Univ., Raleigh NC 27695), ACS
Symposium Series, 476, 332-338, 1992.
The history of producing chemicals and fuels from biomass demonstrates that
technical feasibility does not guarantee economic feasibility; economics have
generally favored fossil fuel sources instead. Concerns such as global warming
may encourage a greater role for biomass in the future.
"Using Hydrogen from Hydroelectricity to Alleviate Carbon Dioxide
Emissions in Eastern Canada," L. Hughes (Dept. Math., St. Mary's Univ.,
Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3, Can.), S. Scott, Energy Conversion & Mgmt.,
33(2), 151-158, Feb. 1992.
Estimated growth in fossil fuel consumption in the Atlantic region of Canada
through the year 2005 shows an increased demand for indigenous coal. A computer
model is used to show how a 20% cut in CO2 emissions is possible through the
replacement of fossil fuels with hydrogen.
Two items from J. Power Sources, 37(1-2), Jan. 1992:
"European Opportunities for Fuel Cell Commercialization," C.E.
Gibbs (Johnson Matthey PLC, 78 Hatton Garden, London EC1N 8JP, UK), 35-43.
Examines the background of power generation in Europe and the recent factors
that will promote change in the market. The 1990s seem to offer great
possibilities for fuel cell commercialization.
"California Clean Air Initiatives," A.C. Lloyd (S. Coast Air Qual.
Mgmt. Dist., 21865 E. Copley Dr., Diamond Bar CA 91765), 241-253. Environmental
concerns (including climate change) have prompted a demonstration program with
fuel cells and related technologies in the South Coast Air Management District
around Los Angeles. Discusses regulatory and legislative actions underway to
stimulate new technologies.
"Prospects for International Collaboration on Energy and Technology
and Role of the IEA," S.F. Garribba (Intl. Energy Agency, OECD, 2 rue A.
Pascal, F-75775 Paris, France), Solar Energy Mater., 24(1-4),
4-17, Dec. 1991.
Introduces a special issue containing papers on solar high-temperature
technologies. The IEA remains committed to the energy security of its member
countries, a critical component of their economies and of the world at large.
Two issues are presently of particular concern: the growing demand for oil with
continuing energy market vulnerability, and concern over greenhouse gas
emissions. Solar technologies will help with both problems.
Meeting report: Environmentally Compatible Energy Sources, Zurich,
Dec. 1990 (second annual conference of the World Circle of the Consensus), Environ.
Conserv., 18(2), 183-184, Summer 1991.
"A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cell Based on Dye-Sensitized
Colloidal TiO2 Films," B. O'Regan, M. Grätzel (Inst. Phys. Chem.,
Swiss Fed. Inst. Technol., CH-1015 Lausanne, Switz.), Nature, 353(6346),
737-739, Oct. 24, 1991. The photovoltaic cell described is created from low- to
medium-purity materials through low-cost processes, and exhibits commercially
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