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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1992

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
IMPACTS OF ULTRAVIOLET


Item #d92sep58

"The Relationship between Skin Cancers, Solar Radiation and Ozone Depletion," J. Moan (Inst. Cancer Res., Montebello, N-0310 Oslo 3, Norway), A. Dahlback, British J. Cancer, 65(6), 916-921, June 1992.

Although the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma increased several-fold in Norway during 1957-1984, exposure calculated from measured ozone levels shows that ozone depletion was not a cause. Data on the incidence of various types of skin cancers in Norway are used to estimate the implications of a future ozone depletion; for instance, a 10% depletion would cause a 16-18% increase in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma.


Item #d92sep59

"A Contribution toward Understanding the Biospherical Significance of Antarctic Ozone Depletion," D. Lubin (Scripps Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), B.G. Mitchell et al., J. Geophys. Res., 97(D8), 7817-7828, May 30, 1992.

Presents and interprets measurements of biologically active UV radiation made during the Austral springs of 1988, 1989 and 1990 in Antarctica, using the NSF scanning spectroradiometer. Two contrasting biological weighting spectra are used to estimate biologically relevant doses: a standard one for DNA damage, and a new one representing the potential for photosynthesis inhibition in Antarctic phytoplankton.


Item #d92sep60

"The Effects of Ultraviolet-B Radiation on Loblolly Pine. 2. Growth of Field-Grown Seedlings," J.H. Sullivan (Dept. Bot., Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), A.H. Teramura, Trees--Structure and Function, 6(3), 115-120, June 1992.

In the first such experiment involving tree species over more than one growing season, pines from seven seed sources were exposed to irradiances comparable to those expected from stratospheric ozone reductions of 16% and 25% over three seasons. Results show that increased UV-B could significantly reduce the growth of loblolly pine through cumulative effects, and that multiple season research is essential in studying the potential impact of global change.


Item #d92sep61

"Influence of Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Spectral Quality on UV-B Induced Polyamine Accumulation in Soybean," G.F. Cramer (Agric. Res. Ctr., USDA-ARS, Beltsville MD 20705), D.T. Krizek, R.M. Mirecki, Phytochem., 31(4), 1119-1125, Apr. 1992.

UV-sensitive and UV-insensitive cultivars of soybean were exposed to irradiance corresponding to a 20% clear-sky decrease in stratospheric ozone, with a spectrum balanced between red and blue wavelengths. Inhibition of UV-B stress observed at high PAR may require a balanced spectrum, and may involve polyamine accumulation.


Item #d92sep62

"Impact of Natural Ultraviolet Radiation on Rates of Photosynthesis and on Specific Marine Phytoplankton Species," E.W. Helbling (Scripps Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), V. Villafane et al., Marine Ecol.--Progress Series, 80(1), 89-100, Feb. 1992.

Natural phytoplankton populations from both Antarctic and tropical waters were exposed to solar radiation. Wavelengths <305 nm (the spectral region most enhanced under low atmospheric ozone concentrations) accounted for only 15%-20% of the total inhibition due to UV-B. Phytoplankton from tropical waters showed marked resistance to UV compared to Antarctic phytoplankton.


Item #d92sep63

"A Supplemental Ultraviolet-B Radiation System for Open-Top Field Chambers," F.L. Booker (Dept. Bot., Box 7632, N. Carolina State Univ., Raleigh NC 27695), E.L. Fiscus et al., J. Environ. Qual., 21(1), 56-61, Jan.-Mar. 1992. Analyzes the performance of apparatus designed to assess the combined effects of ground-level ozone and increased UV-B.


Item #d92sep64

"Ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm) Radiation-Induced Changes in Photochemical Activities and Polypeptide Components of C-3 and C-4 Chloroplasts," G. Kulandaivelu (Sch. Biol. Sci., Madurai Kamaraj Univ., Madurai 625021, Tamil Nadu, India), N. Nedunchezhian, K. Annamalainathan, Photosynthetica, 25(3), 333-339, 1991.

C3 plants Dolichos, Phaseolus and Triticum were more susceptible to UV-B inactivation of their photosystem 2 mediated Hill activity than the C4 plants Amaranthus, Zea mays and Pennisetum. Except for Amaranthus, the site of UV-B inhibition is at the water oxidation between the donor sites of DPC and NH2OH.

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