February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 1993
Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances
That Deplete the Ozone Layer held their fifth annual meeting in Bangkok in
November. Although no amendments were made to the protocol itself, several
countries made side agreements. About 20 countries (excluding the U.S.) agreed
to phase out the use of HCFCs by the year 2015, faster than currently required.
The move reflects growing support to limit dependence on HCFCs recently
introduced as substitutes for CFCs. HCFCs are not completely ozone-safe and have
always been viewed as interim substitutes.
Over a dozen countries (including the U.S.) also signed an agreement to
reduce consumption of methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant and pesticide, by
at least 25 percent by the year 2000. So far the protocol only requires a
production freeze at 1991 levels beginning in 1995; no phaseout date has been
Prompted in part by reports that consumption of ozone-depleting substances
from developing countries is still increasing, delegates approved a $500 million
budget in 1994-1996 for the multilateral fund, through which industrialized
countries will assist developing countries to adopt ozone-safe technology. This
roughly doubles the amount provided in the first three-year interval of the fund
For accounts of the meeting see Intl. Environ. Rptr., pp. 881 and
885-886, Dec. 1 1993; New Scientist, p. 10, Nov. 27 1993; Global Environ.
Change Rep., pp. 3-4, Dec. 10 1993.
A lengthy feature article in Chem. Eng. News (pp. 12-18, Nov. 15,
1993) discusses how the manufacturers and users of ozone-depleting substances
are making the transition to the first generation substitutes, while work is
underway on a second generation of compounds and technologies. It also describes
a campaign by the environmental group Greenpeace to introduce promising
refrigeration technology it claims is being ignored by the U.S. EPA and
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