February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 1993
EMISSION REDUCTION ANALYSES
"CO2 Mitigation: Measures and Options," N. Nakicenovic (IIASA,
A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria), Environ. Sci. Technol., 27(10),
1986-1989, Oct. 1993.
Describes analyses conducted at the International Institute for Applied
Systems Analysis using the CO2DB database, which permits comparison of
technological and economic options using the approach of energy end-use
"Limiting CO2 Emissions in the Power Sector of India: Supply Curves
for Wind and Small Hydro," J. Hossain (Tata Energy Res. Inst., 9 Jor Bagh,
New Delhi 110 003, India), C.S. Sinha, Energy Policy, 21(10),
1025-1034, Oct. 1993.
The comparison constructs both the absolute and incremental supply cost
curves for CO2 offset. Windfarms offer much higher potential to reduce
emissions, but the costs are estimated to be higher than for small hydro.
Three items from World Resour. Rev., 5(3), Sep. 1993:
"Estimating the Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction from
Agricultural Policy Reform," W.N. Adger (Ctr. Social & Econ.
Res.--Global Environ., Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), D.C. Moran,
303-323. Estimates of methane emissions from livestock in the U.K. show that
much of the cost of reducing agricultural supports would be offset by the
benefit of reduced emissions of this greenhouse gas.
"Energy Losses and Carbon Emissions Due to Windows in the Residential
Sector," K. Frost (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Bldg. 90-3111, Berkeley CA
94720) D. Arasteh, J. Eto, 351-359. Window data combined with energy simulation
models show that existing residential windows account for 4% of U.S. CO2
emissions. This could either remain constant or drop up to 25% by the year 2012,
depending on the blend of window technologies sold.
"The Costs of Different Energy Taxes for Stabilizing U.S. Carbon
Dioxide Emissions: An Application of the Gemini Model," N.A. Leary (Clim.
Change Div., Off. Policy, US EPA, 401 M St. SW, Washington DC 20460), J.D.
Scheraga, 372-386. Compares carbon, Btu and ad valorem taxes using a
partial equilibrium model of U.S. energy markets that combines detailed
representation of technological processes with optimizing behavior by energy
users and suppliers.
Two items from Energy Policy, 21(7), July 1993:
"A CO2 Agreement Proposal with Flexible Quotas," H. Welsch (Inst.
Energy Econ., Univ. Cologne, A. Magnus Pl., D-5000 Köln 41, Ger.), 748-756.
Proposes a CO2 agreement that encourages broad participation by offering less
developed countries the opportunity to improve their economic position. A
penalty/premium mechanism provides flexibility and attains global abatement at
Discussion on a methodology for comparing options for greenhouse gas
abatement in the U.K., 722-725.
"Environmental Impact of European Papermaking: A Comparison of
Primary and Recycled Fiber Scenarios," K. Ebeling (Finnish Pulp & Paper
Res. Inst., SF-00101 Helsinki 10, Finland), O. Airanne et al., Paper and
Timber (Paperi Ja Puu), 75(1-2), 50-53, 1993. In English.
Mathematical simulations indicate that making paper from primary fiber
produced by well-managed forests is environmentally preferable to making it from
recycled paper, provided waste paper is used as a biofuel. The advantage will
increase as efforts to combat global warming increase.
"Conserved Energy Supply Curves for U.S. Buildings," A.
Rosenfeld (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley CA 94720), C. Atkinson et al.,
Contemp. Policy Issues, XI(1), 45-68, Jan. 1993.
Comparison of nine conservation supply curves for electricity shows that
fully implementing a series of efficiency measures would save 10% of U.S CO2
emissions. Further savings are available from fuel efficiency measures and fuel
Three items from Intl. J. Energy, Environ., Econ., 2(2),
"Energy Use in Dwellings and Carbon Dioxide Emissions," G.
Henderson (Dept. Environ., Bldg. Res. Sta., Garston, Watford WD2 7JR, UK), L.D.
Shorrock, 15-21. Application of an energy use model shows that U.K. CO2
emissions from housing could be reduced 25-35% through improved insulation and
"Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emission from Energy Systems," S.
Ihara (Nippon Inst. Technol., Minami-Saitama, Saitama, Japan), S. Koyama, 85-97.
Applies the MARKAL model to explore energy options and costs in Japan. Energy
conservation yields CO2 reductions under a variety of conditions; constraints on
national emissions cause major shifts in the market shares of fossil and
"Estimating the Marginal Cost of Reducing Global Fossil Fuel CO2
Emissions," J. Edmonds (Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington DC 20024), D.W.
Barns, S. McDonald, 99-116. Analyzes the costs and effectiveness of carbon taxes
applied by OECD members alone or as part of a global cooperative strategy, and
implications for employment on the U.S. coal industry.
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Index of Abbreviations