February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1993
GENERAL INTEREST AND POLICY
Four items from Global Environ. Change, 2(4), Dec. 1992:
"International Resource Cooperation and the Greenhouse Problem,"
S. Andresen (F. Nansen Inst. Polholgda, POB 326, F. Nansen Vei 17, N-1324
Lysaker, Norway), J. Wettestad, 277-291. Summarizes important lessons from
experience in international environmental cooperation, focusing first on
institutional and procedural factors, then on climate negotiations. Procedural
and institutional factors have limited the significance of negotiations when
stakes are high.
"The Successful Ozone Layer Negotiations--Are There Any Lessons to be
Learned?" J.B. Skjaerseth (addr. immed. above), 292-300. Discusses the
distinction between a problem and the problem-solving capacity invested in its
solution. Actors in the ozone issue faced a quite benign political problem;
ignoring problem characteristics may result in misleading conclusions about the
applicability of any lessons learned.
"Is Carbon Dioxide a Good Greenhouse Gas--Effects of Increasing Carbon
Dioxide on Ecological Systems," E.D. Fajer (Dept. Biol., Harvard Univ.,
Cambridge MA 02138), 301-310. Despite speculation that agricultural yields will
be boosted and ecosystems will flourish under elevated CO2, infertile conditions
and complex ecological interactions could limit improved plant growth. Future
policies to adapt to a CO2-rich world must neither overstate nor ignore the
"The Greenhouse Effect and United States Landfill Methane," D.
Augenstein (Emcon Assoc., 1921 Ringwood Ave., San José CA 95131),
311-328. Preliminary estimates suggest that landfill methane abatement is one of
the more cost-effective measures for addressing the greenhouse problem.
"EC Climate Policy: Where There's a Will...," M. Grubb (Roy.
Inst. Intl. Affairs, Chatham Hse., St. James's Sq., London SW1Y 4LE, UK), C.
Hope, Energy Policy, 20(11), 1110-1114, Nov. 1992.
Widespread opposition and the Danish referendum have undermined the European
Commission's proposals for a harmonized CO2/energy tax. A revised strategy
incorporating clear incentives to limit emissions is needed if the EC is to
avoid continued conflict, uncertainty and political embarrassment. Recommends
tradable emission permits.
"The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Warming," R. Leygonie (Ctr.
Interprof. Tech. Études Pollut. Atmos., 3 rue H. Heine, F-75015 Paris,
France), Rev. Gen. Thermique, 31(370), 503-518, Oct. 1992. In
The IPCC conclusions (discussed in a previous article) have raised
dissenting opinions among some scientists, which are discussed here. Summarizes
the IPCC update to its 1990 conclusions, recent political events including the
proposed EC carbon/energy tax, the Rio Earth Summit, and the French ECLAT
program on climate change.
"Industrial Innovation and Government Environmental Regulation: Some
Lessons from the Past," R. Rothwell (Sci. Pol. Res. Unit, Univ. Sussex,
Brighton BN1 9RF, UK), 12(7), Technovation, 447-458, Nov. 1992.
Addresses unnecessarily large impacts of environmental regulations on
businesses, and their underlying causes. Suggests how to minimize negative
effects and still protect the environment.
"The Great Lakes Basin: Climate Change and Policy Issues," M.J.
Donahue (Great Lakes Comm., Argus II Bldg., 400 Fourth St., Ann Arbor MI 48103),
Geotimes, 37(12), 19-20, Dec. 1992.
Adaptation will be facilitated if institutions can foster rather than fight
new management principles, adopt a Basin Water Management Program, and nurture
policy responses that are anticipatory, preventive and adaptive, not simply
"Weather and Climate and the Nation's Well-Being," Amer.
Meteor. Soc., Univ. Corp. Atmos. Res., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 73(12),
2035-2041, Dec. 1992.
Updates the 1988 report The Changing Atmosphere--Challenges and
Opportunities. Summarizes important recent scientific findings, assesses the
progress made in reducing risks and exploiting opportunities, and identifies new
"Potential to Sequester Carbon in Canadian Forests: Some Economic
Considerations," G.C. Van Kooten, L.M. Arthur, W.R. Wilson, Can. Public
Pol., 18(2), 127-138, 1992.
Compares the costs of three types of forestation programs with the costs of
reducing CO2 emissions, by either replacing old cars with more efficient ones,
or by converting Canadian cars to natural gas. Makes specific recommendations on
"Coral Reef Environmental Science: Truth versus the Cassandra
Syndrome," R.W. Grigg (Dept. Oceanog., Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu HI 96822),
Coral Reefs, 11(4), 183-186, Dec. 1992.
Predictions in 1970 that the crown-of-thorns starfish would cause widespread
devastation to coral reefs turned out to be exaggerated. Now, in the 1990s, a
few scientists have sounded the alarm about the impacts of climate change on
reefs, but the mood in general is not one of over-reaction.
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