February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1993
TEMPERATURE TREND ANALYSES
"Monitoring Global Monthly Mean Surface Temperatures," K.E.
Trenberth (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), J.R. Christy, J.W. Hurrell, J.
Clim., 5(12), 1405-1423, Dec. 1992.
Assesses how well the monthly mean surface temperatures for the decade of
the 1980s are known, using a variety of approaches including comparison with
satellite observations. Discusses difficulties in establishing temperatures from
the historical record, in light of the fewer observations made in the past, and
estimated noise levels.
"Inference About Trends in Global Temperature Data," J.W.
Galbraith (Dept. Econ., McGill Univ., Montreal PQ H3A 2T7, Can.), C. Green, Clim.
Change, 22(3), 209-221, Nov. 1992.
Attempts to statistically infer underlying changes in climate using tests
for both deterministic and stochastic nonstationarity (trends) in times series
of global average temperature. Rejects the hypothesis of a stochastic trend, but
there is evidence of a trend which could be approximated by a deterministic
"Relation between Long-Term Trends of Oxygen-18 Isotope Composition
of Precipitation and Climate," K. Rozanski (Intl. Atomic Energy Agency,
1400-Vienna, Austria), L. Araguás-Araguás, R. Gonfiantini,
Science, 258(5084), 981-985, Nov. 1992.
Long-term trends of isotopic composition of precipitation over mid- and
high-latitude regions during the past three decades closely follow trends in
surface air temperature.
"An Evaluation of Monthly Mean MSU and ECMWF Global Atmospheric
Temperatures for Monitoring Climate," J.W. Hurrell (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder
CO 80307), K.E. Trenberth, J. Clim., 5(11), 1424-1440, Nov.
In general, results show the importance of realizing inherent problems with
operationally based gridded data sets, and emphasize the need for reanalysis of
all data using 4-D data assimilation. Changes to the analysis-forecast system at
ECMWF over the past decade appear as apparent changes in climate.
"A Possible Discontinuity in the U.S. Historical Temperature Record,"
M. Chenoweth (Dept. Geog., White Knights, Univ. Reading, Reading, Berkshire,
UK), J. Clim., 5(10), 1172-1179, Oct. 1992.
Examines the likelihood that the nineteenth century temperature record is
inhomogeneous, using a field assessment of the most common type of thermometer
exposure in use at that time. Results suggest that nineteenth century records
have a cold bias, but a definite conclusion is precluded because of other
evidence of warm bias in some cases.
"Climate Change Inferred from Analysis of Borehole Temperatures--An
Example from Western Utah," T.J. Chisholm (Exxon Explor. Co., POB 4279,
Houston TX 77210), D.S. Chapman, J. Geophys. Res., 97(B10),
14,155-14,175, Sep. 10, 1992.
Comparison of borehole-inferred temperatures with direct observations shows
that the solid earth is a valuable recorder of climate change. Inference of
temperature prior to direct observations (1891) indicates that up to 50% of the
temperature increase in the 100-year record constitutes recovery from a cold
period toward the end of the last century.
"Temperature Trends over the Mediterranean Region, 1950-88,"
H.S. Sahsamanoglou (Sch. Geol., Univ. Thessaloniki, GR-54006 Salonika, Greece),
T.J. Makrogiannis, Theor. Appl. Clim., 45(3), 183-192, 1992.
The trend was positive in the western part of the area and negative in the
eastern portion. The mean temperature of the surface/500 hPa layer had a
positive trend everywhere; sea surface temperature trends were negative.
"Urbanization Effect on Global Warming Values," P.Ya. Groisman
(State Hydrologic Inst.), V.V. Koknaeva, Soviet Meteor. Hydrol., No. 9,
1-5, 1991 (Eng. translation, Allerton Press).
Compares estimates of spatially averaged mean annual air temperatures from
the standard State Hydrological Institute network and from special networks of
rural stations, for the four large continental areas. The contribution of
urbanization throughout the last century is insignificant (<10%).
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