February 28, 2007
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Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1993
GLOBAL AND OCEAN MODELING
"AMIP: The Atmospheric Intercomparison Project," W.L. Gates
(Lawrence Livermore Nat. Lab., L-264, POB 800, Livermore CA 94550), Bull.
Amer. Meteor. Soc., 73(12), 1962-1970, Dec. 1992.
AMIP is an international comparison of the systematic climate errors of over
50 atmospheric models under realistic conditions, conducted under the auspices
of the World Climate Research Program. The climate for the decade 1979-1988 is
being simulated using observed monthly average distributions of sea surface
temperature and sea ice as boundary conditions. A series of diagnostic studies
will begin after completion of the computational phase in 1993.
"Global Forcing and Regional Interactions," Eos,
529-530, Dec. 8, 1992. Report of an October 1991 workshop involving atmospheric
scientists, hydrologists and ecologists, who planned multidisciplinary research,
much of it related to global modeling.
"A Comparative Analysis of Two Land Surface Heterogeneity
Representations," R.D. Koster (NASA-Goddard, Code 974, Greenbelt MD 20771),
M.J. Suarez, J. Clim., 5(12), 1379-1390, Dec. 1992.
Two contrasting representations used in GCMs ("mixture" and "mosaic")
were compared through analysis of their corresponding surface energy balance
equations. The effective differences were generally small.
Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D16), Nov. 20, 1992:
"Satellite Validation of GCM-Simulated Annual Cycle of the Earth
Radiation Budget and Cloud Forcing," S. Bony (Lab. Météor.
Dynam., CNRS, école Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231
Paris Cedex 05, France), H. Le Treut et al., 18,061-18,081. Uses ERBE data to
evaluate simulations by the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
model, emphasizing the development of new tests for comparing model results and
"Validation of Cloud Forcing Simulated by the [NCAR] Community Climate
Model Using Observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment," B.J.
Soden (Space Sci. Eng. Ctr., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706), 18,137-18,159.
Evaluation of the model's ability to reproduce monthly mean global distribution
and temporal variability reveals several deficiencies in cloud representation,
particularly the effects of low-level cloud on planetary albedo.
"Contribution to the Cloud Droplet Effective Radius
Parameterization," C. Pontikis (Météo-France, Lab. Phys.
Atmos. Tropicale, Univ. Antilles et Guyane, 97159, Pointe à Pitre Cedex,
Guadeloupe, FWI), Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(22), 2227-2230, Nov.
20, 1992. An analytic expression validated with field data illustrates factors
that could limit the accuracy of climate model parameterizations.
"A Modeling Study of the North Atlantic with Emphasis on the
Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Sea," T. Aukrust (IBM Norway, Environ. Sci. &
Solut. Ctr., Thormohlensgate 55, N-5008 Bergen, Nor.), J.M. Oberhuber et al.,
IBM Syst. J., 31(4), 798-810, 1992. Deep water formation due to
convection and other aspects of North Atlantic circulation are studied with a
coupled ocean-atmosphere model.
Three items from Climate Dynamics, 8(1), Oct. 1992:
"A Global Monthly Climatology of Soil Moisture and Water Balance,"
Y. Mintz (Lab. Météor. Dynam., CNRS, école Normale Supérieure,
24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05, France), Y.V. Serafini, 13-27. Derives
available soil moisture content from observed precipitation and air surface
temperature, and compares results with independently derived data.
"The Impact of Doubled CO2 on the Energetics and Hydrologic Processes
of Mid-Latitude Transient Eddies," L.E. Branscome (Environ. Dynam. Res.
Inc., 7338 155th Pl. N, Palm Beach Gardens FL 33418), W.J. Gutowski, 29-37.
Using a primitive-equation spectral model, compares transient eddy behavior for
zonal-mean climates of GCMs corresponding to current and doubled levels of CO2.
Finds that the smaller meridional temperature gradient of the latter case leads
to reduced eddy kinetic energy.
"Atmospheric Water Vapor Flux, Bifurcation of the Thermohaline
Circulation, and Climate Change," H.X. Wang (Dept. Geol., Northwestern
Univ., Evanston IL 60208), G.E. Birchfield, 49-53. Uses a simple coupled,
ocean-atmosphere, energy-salt balance model to study the role of the atmospheric
hydrologic cycle on the global thermohaline circulation, and feedback to the
climate system through changes in oceanic latitudinal heat transport. The
present climate appears stable (far from a bifurcation point).
Two items from J. Clim., 5(9), Oct. 1992:
"The Canadian Climate Centre Second Generation General Circulation
Model and Its Equilibrium Climate," N.A. McFarlane (Can. Clim. Ctr./CCRN,
4905 Dufferin St., Downsview ON M3H 5T4, Can.), G.J. Boer et al., 1013-1044.
Describes important differences in the new model compared to the 1984 version,
including interactive cloudiness, improved radiative heating and land surface
treatments, and a simple ocean mixed layer with thermodynamic sea ice. A
ten-year simulation is compared with climatology.
"Greenhouse Gas-Induced Climate Change Simulated with the CCC Second
Generation General Circulation Model," G.J. Boer (addr. immed. above), N.A.
McFarlane, M. Lazare, 1045-1077. Equilibrium response to a doubling of CO2,
simulated using the model described in the previous entry, shows a global annual
warming of 3.5·C. Precipitation and evaporation rates increase by about 4%,
and soil moisture decreases over continental Northern Hemisphere land areas in
Three items from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D14), Oct. 20,
"Simulation of the Last Glacial Cycle by a Coupled, Sectorially
Averaged Climate-Ice Sheet Model. 2. Response to Insolation and CO2 Variations,"
H. Gallée (Lemaître Inst., Univ. Catholique de Louvain, B-1348
Louvain-la-Neuve, Belg.), J.P. van Ypersele et al., 15,713-15,740. Tests the
influence of several factors, including snow surface albedo over the ice sheets,
in producing plausible ice age simulations using astronomically derived
insolation and CO2 data from the Vostok ice core.
"Line-by-Line Calculations of Atmospheric Fluxes and Cooling Rates:
Application to Water Vapor," S.A. Clough (Atmos. Environ. Res. Inc., 840
Memorial Dr., Cambridge MA 02139), M.J. Iacono, J.-L. Moncet, 15,761-15,785.
Application of a model for the accelerated calculation of clear sky fluxes leads
to some significant insights into atmospheric radiative processes inferred from
spectral profiles of the cooling rate.
"Simulation of the Global CFC 11 Using the Los Alamos Chemical Tracer
Model," C.-Y. J. Kao (Los Alamos Nat. Lab., Los Alamos NM 87544), X. Tie et
al., 15,827-15,838. A six-year simulation beginning in 1978 compares reasonably
with measurements from the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. Model behavior and
sensitivity tests are discussed.
"3-D Tropospheric CO Modeling: The Possible Influence of the Ocean,"
D.J. Erickson III (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), J.A. Taylor, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 19(19), 1955-1958, Oct. 2, 1992.
Simulations assuming a homogeneous ocean-to-atmosphere flux are compared to
those allowing a larger, spatially and temporally varying flux. Any
climate-related changes in surface radiative fluxes, such as by ozone depletion,
may alter surface ocean CO concentrations and, by implication, atmospheric
boundary layer CO, OH and O3 abundance.
Three items from J. Clim., 5(9), Sep. 1992:
"An Analysis of Cloud Liquid Water Feedback and Global Climate
Sensitivity in a General Circulation Model," K.E. Taylor (Lawrence
Livermore Nat. Lab., L-264, POB 808, Livermore CA 94550), S.J. Ghan, 907-919.
Experiments with the NCAR model designed to isolate the various feedback effects
of clouds show that net cloud feedback, a residual of several offsetting
effects, is nevertheless large enough to nearly double the sensitivity of the
simulated climate. Cloud albedo cannot be parameterized in terms of average
cloud water content.
"Simulated Diurnal Range and Variability of Surface Temperature in a
Global Climate Model for Present and Doubled CO2 Climates," H.X. Cao,
J.F.B. Mitchell (Hadley Ctr., Meteor. Off., London Rd., Bracknell, Berkshire,
RG12 2SY, UK), J.R. Lavery, 920-943. Simulations of doubled CO2 climate with the
Hadley Center model including a mixed-layer ocean show that the diurnal range
over land decreases by 0.3·C, while global mean temperature over land
increases by 6.3·C.
"Regional Climates in the GISS Global Circulation Model: Synoptic-Scale
Circulation," B. Hewitson, R.G. Crane (Dept. Geog., Pennsylvania State
Univ., 302 Walker Bldg., Univ. Pk. PA 16802), 1002-1011. Based on principal
component analysis, the GISS model effectively simulates synoptic-scale
atmospheric circulation over the U.S.
"Tropical Cyclone Frequencies Inferred from Gray's Yearly Genesis
Parameter: Validation of GCM Tropical Climates," B.F. Ryan (Atmos. Res.,
CSIRO, Mordialloc, Vic. 3195, Australia), I.G. Watterson, J.L. Evans, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 19(18), 1831-1834, Sep. 23, 1992.
The genesis parameter, a diagnostic tool for determining necessary (but
insufficient) conditions for tropical cyclone development, when applied to a
CSIRO9 GCM simulation of current climate reproduces reasonably well the observed
distribution of this parameter. Analyzes a doubled CO2 simulation in the same
"A Zonally Averaged, Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Paleoclimate
Studies," T.F. Stocker (Lamont-Doherty Geolog. Observ., Palisades NY
10964), D.G. Wright, L.A. Mysak, J. Clim., 5(8), 773-797, Aug.
The model emphasizes thermohaline circulations in the Pacific, Atlantic and
Indian Oceans, and their interconnection, and is applied to the effect of
freshwater discharge into the North Atlantic. Reversals of deep circulation were
possible in the North Atlantic and the Pacific; four different stable equilibria
were realized in the model.
"Calculation of CO2 15-m Band Atmospheric Cooling Rates by Curtis
Matrix Interpolation of Correlated-k Coefficients," X. Zhu (Dept. Earth
Sci., Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore MD 21218), M.E. Summers, D.F. Strobel, J.
Geophys. Res., 97(D12), 12,787-12,797, Aug. 20, 1992. The algorithm
is accurate, easy to use and readily adapted for GCMs.
"Global Warming: Greenhouse Gases versus Aerosols," O. Preining
(Inst. Experimentalphys., Univ. Wien, Strudlhofg. 4, A-1090 Wien, Austria), Sci.
Tot. Environ., 126(1-2), 199-204, Sep. 11, 1992.
Uses a simple zero-dimensional model to evaluate the relative effects of
anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols. The effects are comparable but
opposite, so aerosols must be included in climate modeling.
"Influence of the Starting Date of Model Integration on Projections
of Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change," T. Fichefet (Inst. Astron.
Geophys., Univ. Catholique, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belg.), C. Tricot, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 19(17), 1771-1774, Sep. 4, 1992.
Experiments with a coupled atmosphere-ocean energy-balance model show that
although the starting date effect depends on the rate of forcing change and on
oceanic thermal inertia, reliable projections of climate change can be obtained
by starting model integration as late as the year 1960.
"A Numerical Experiment for Effects of Ozone Heating on General
Circulation," Y.J. Chen (Univ. Sci. Technol. China, Hefei 230026, PRC),
D.H. Bi, Sci. in China Ser. B. (Chem., Life Sci., Earth Sci.), 35(7),
870-881, July 1992.
Adds an ozone conservation equation to a nine-layer GCM to simulate heating
of the upper atmosphere by ultraviolet absorption and to isolate ozone effects.
Significant impacts on stratospheric zonal wind and meridional circulation are
"An Example of Climate-Relevant Processes Unresolved by Present-Day
General Circulation Models," M. Beniston (ProClim, Bärenpl. 2, 3001
Bern, Switz.), J. Pérez-Sanchez, Environ. Conserv., 19(2),
165-169, Summer 1992.
Uses a mesoscale atmospheric model to investigate whether dynamic and
thermodynamic perturbations induced by an island in a trade wind flow could
cause important subgrid-scale effects in GCMs. Concludes islands may be
climatically important if they act on sufficiently long time scales.
"Comparison of Observed and Calculated Clear Sky Greenhouse Effect:
Implications for Climate Studies," J.T. Kiehl (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO
80307), B.P. Briegleb, J. Geophys. Res., 97(D9), 10,037-10,049,
June 20, 1992.
Investigates the accuracy of clear sky fluxes analyzed from ERBE
measurements by using independent atmospheric and surface data in conjunction
with a detailed longwave radiation model. For most regions over the ocean the
calculated fluxes agree with measured, except in regions of deep convective
activity. Analyzed fluxes may give a more consistent data set for general
"Interpretation of Seasonal Cloud-Climate Interactions Using Earth
Radiation Budget Experiment Data," R.D. Cess (Inst. Terr. Planet. Atmos.,
SUNY, Stony Brook NY 11794), E.F. Harrison et al., ibid., 97(D7),
7613-7617, May 20, 1992. Proposes an approach for using satellite data to
interpret seasonal cloud-climate interactions for testing and improving climate
"The Boreal Forests and Climate," G. Thomas (Dept. Rural Land
Use, Silsoe College, Cranfield Inst. Technol., Bedford, UK), P.R. Rowntree, Quart.
J. Royal Meteor. Soc., 118(Part B, No. 505), 469-497, Apr. 1992.
Investigates the sensitivity of Northern Hemisphere climate to modification
of snow-covered surface albedo using the U.K. Meteorological Office GCM, by
comparing integrations representing forested and deforested conditions.
Deforested regions show systematic reductions in temperature of up to 2.8 K, and
"A Review of Terrestrial and Marine Climates in the Cretaceous with
Implications for Modelling the 'Greenhouse Earth,'" R.A. Spicer (Dept.
Earth Sci., Univ. Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PR, UK), R.M. Corfield, Geol. Mag.,
129(2), 169-180, Mar. 1992.
The Cretaceous was an extreme greenhouse world apparently warmer than
current conditions. Its geological record provides perspective and constraints
against which the success of climate models can be evaluated. Prominent climatic
characteristics of the period are discussed.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations